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  1. Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. ...

    Authors: Tommi Sulander, Heikki Heinonen, Tuuli Pajunen, Antti Karisto, Pertti Pohjolainen and Mikael Fogelholm
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:78
  2. Social factors have been proved to be main determinants of individuals’ health. Recent studies have also analyzed the contribution of some of those factors, such as education and job status, to socioeconomic i...

    Authors: Rosa M Urbanos-Garrido
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:77
  3. Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector.

    Authors: Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal De Silva, Isurujith Kongala Liyanage, Lalini Chandika Rajapakse, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Prasad Katulanda, Chandrika Neelakanthi Wijeratne and Sumedha Wijeratne
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:76
  4. Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the...

    Authors: Mitsuru Toda, Antony Opwora, Evelyn Waweru, Abdisalan Noor, Tansy Edwards, Greg Fegan, Catherine Molyneux and Catherine Goodman
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:75
  5. Mutual health organizations (MHO) have been implemented across Africa to increase access to healthcare and improve financial protection. Despite efforts to develop MHOs, low levels of both initial enrolment an...

    Authors: Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Slim Haddad, Ismaïlou Yacoubou and Pierre Fournier
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:74
  6. This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over.

    Authors: Mia Son, Youngtae Cho, Juhwan Oh, Ichiro Kawachi, Junhyeok Yi and Soonman Kwon
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:71
  7. The paper presents evidence about the distribution of the benefits of public expenditures on a subset of priority public health services that are supposed to be provided free of charge in the public sector, us...

    Authors: Obinna Onwujekwe, Kara Hanson and Benjamin Uzochukwu
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:70
  8. Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health serv...

    Authors: Teresa Janevic, Pallas W Sarah, Ismayilova Leyla and Bradley H Elizabeth
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:69
  9. International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some ...

    Authors: Baltica Cabieses, Helena Tunstall, Kate E Pickett and Jasmine Gideon
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:68
  10. Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-r...

    Authors: Anahit Demirchyan, Varduhi Petrosyan and Michael E Thompson
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:67
  11. Colombia is one of the countries with the widest levels of socioeconomic and health inequalities. Bogotá, its capital, faces serious problems of poverty, social disparities and access to health services. A Pri...

    Authors: Paola A Mosquera, Jinneth Hernández, Román Vega, Jorge Martínez, Ronald Labonte, David Sanders and Miguel San Sebastián
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:66
  12. Family (i.e., unpaid) caregiving has long been thought of as a ‘woman’s issue’, which ultimately results not only in gendered, but also financial and health inequities. Because of this, gender-based analyses h...

    Authors: Melissa Giesbrecht, Valorie A Crooks, Allison Williams and Olena Hankivsky
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:65
  13. This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public’s prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country’s natio...

    Authors: Sabrina Ramji and Carlos Quiñonez
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:64
  14. Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explo...

    Authors: Thanh Cong Bui, Christine M Markham, Michael W Ross, Mark L Williams, R Palmer Beasley, Ly TH Tran, Huong TH Nguyen and Thach Ngoc Le
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:63
  15. The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional an...

    Authors: Phyllis Dako-Gyeke, Rachel Snow and Alfred E Yawson
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:62
  16. Retrenchment of government services has occurred across a wide range of sectors and regions. Care services, in particular, have been clawed away in the wake of fiscal policies of cost containment and neolibera...

    Authors: Cecilia Benoit, Camille Stengel, Rachel Phillips, Maria Zadoroznyj and Sarah Berry
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:61
  17. The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is ...

    Authors: Adnan A Zaidi, Tayyaba Z Ansari and Aziz Khan
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:60
  18. International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC) services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how ...

    Authors: Annette J Browne, Colleen M Varcoe, Sabrina T Wong, Victoria L Smye, Josée Lavoie, Doreen Littlejohn, David Tu, Olive Godwin, Murry Krause, Koushambhi B Khan, Alycia Fridkin, Patricia Rodney, John O’Neil and Scott Lennox
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:59
  19. Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a s...

    Authors: Gerry Veenstra
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:58
  20. Indigenous Australians experience more aggressive cancers and higher cancer mortality rates than other Australians. Cancer patients undergoing treatment are likely to access health services (e.g. social worker...

    Authors: Christina M Bernardes, Lisa J Whop, Gail Garvey and Patricia C Valery
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:57
  21. In previous studies, women are less aware of causation and symptoms of leprosy and have less access to health care coverage than men, thus contributing to their delay in seeking for treatment. We assess the ge...

    Authors: José M Ramos, Miguel Martínez-Martín, Francisco Reyes, Deriba Lemma, Isabel Belinchón and Félix Gutiérrez
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:56
  22. Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countrie...

    Authors: Mahdieh Dastjerdi, Karin Olson and Linda Ogilvie
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:55
  23. Bariatric surgery is the most effective current treatment for severe obesity. Capacity to perform surgery within Canada’s public health system is limited and potential candidates face protracted wait times. A ...

    Authors: Raj S Padwal, Hsui-Ju Chang, Scott Klarenbach, Arya M Sharma and Sumit R Majumdar
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:54
  24. Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH) is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the e...

    Authors: Sawsan Abdulrahim and Khalil El Asmar
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:53
  25. Women represent a growing proportion of older people and experience increasing disability in their longer lives. Using a universally agreed definition of disability based on the International Classification of...

    Authors: Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Jennifer Stewart Williams, Ben Jann, Paul Kowal, Alana Officer, Aleksandra Posarac and Somnath Chatterji
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:52
  26. Out-of-pocket (OOP) payment on healthcare is dominant mode of financing in developing countries. In Pakistan it is 67% of total expenditure on healthcare. Analysis of determinants of OOP health expenditure is ...

    Authors: Ashar Muhammad Malik and Shah Iqbal Azam Syed
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:51
  27. Women have in general poorer self-rated health than men. Both material and psychosocial conditions have been found to be associated with self-rated health. We investigated whether two such factors, financial i...

    Authors: Anu Molarius, Fredrik Granström, Inna Feldman, Marina Kalander Blomqvist, Helena Pettersson and Sirkka Elo
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:50
  28. Little rigorous evidence exists on how health service utilization varies across socioeconomic groups after a user fee exemption policy has been implemented, and the evidence that does exist is mixed. In this p...

    Authors: Marianne El-Khoury, Laurel Hatt and Timothee Gandaho
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:49
  29. In this study we investigated the distribution of self-reported health care utilisation by education and household income in a county population in Norway, in a universal public health care system based on ide...

    Authors: Eirik Vikum, Steinar Krokstad and Steinar Westin
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:48
  30. Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study wa...

    Authors: Sharareh Akhavan
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:47
  31. Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These co...

    Authors: Sann Chan Soeung, John Grundy, Hean Sokhom, Diana Chang Blanc and Rasoka Thor
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:46
  32. One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this...

    Authors: Laura Dallolio, Valentina Di Gregori, Jacopo Lenzi, Giuseppe Franchino, Simona Calugi, Gianfranco Domenighetti and Maria Pia Fantini
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:45
  33. To report the extent of self-reported chronic diseases, self-rated health status (SRH) and healthcare utilization among residents in 1-2 room Housing Development Board (HDB) apartments in Toa Payoh.

    Authors: Pradeep Paul George, Bee Hoon Heng, Joseph Antonio De Castro Molina, Lai Yin Wong, Ng Charis Wei Lin and Jason Tian Seng Cheah
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:44
  34. Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. ...

    Authors: Wilton Pérez, Elmer Zelaya Blandón, Lars-Åke Persson, Rodolfo Peña and Carina Källestål
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:43

    The Erratum to this article has been published in International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:72

  35. China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 a...

    Authors: Jinan Liu, Lizheng Shi, Qingyue Meng and M Mahmud Khan
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:42
  36. This article outlines the meaningful participation of eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members employed as community researchers investigating the impact of pandemic influenza in rural and...

    Authors: Jenny Kelly, Sherry Saggers, Kylie Taylor, Glenn Pearce, Peter Massey, Jennifer Bull, Travis Odo, John Thomas, Rosita Billycan, Jenni Judd, Susan Reilly and Shayne Ahboo
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:40
  37. Current evidence on the root-causes of deaths among children younger than 5years is critical to direct international efforts to improve child survival, focus on health promotion and achieve Millennium Developm...

    Authors: Bamgboye M Afolabi, Cecilia O Clement, Adejuwonlo Ekundayo and Duro Dolapo
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:39
  38. At the beginning of 2007, health care reforms were implemented in Hungary in order to decrease public expenditure on health care. Reforms involved the increase of co-payments for pharmaceuticals and the introd...

    Authors: Petra Baji, Milena Pavlova, László Gulácsi and Wim Groot
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:36
  39. In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6...

    Authors: Carme Saurina, Laura Vall-llosera and Marc Saez
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:35
  40. There is an urgent need for universal access to modern contraceptives in Nigeria, to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other national goals. This study provides information on ...

    Authors: Obinna E Onwujekwe, Chinwe Ogbonna, Nkoli Uguru, Benjamin SC Uzochukwu, Agathe Lawson and Bannet Ndyanabangi
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:34
  41. This study assesses trends in horizontal equity in the utilization of healthcare services from 1998 to 2008--a period of major economic and social change in Brazil.

    Authors: James Macinko and Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:33

    The Erratum to this article has been published in International Journal for Equity in Health 2014 13:101

  42. Fair processes in decision making need the involvement of stakeholders who can discuss issues and reach an agreement based on reasons that are justifiable and appropriate in meeting people’s needs. In Tanzania...

    Authors: Elizabeth H Shayo, Ole F Norheim, Leonard E G Mboera, Jens Byskov, Stephen Maluka, Peter Kamuzora and Astrid Blystad
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:30
  43. Previous studies have shown that delayed detection of several cancers is related to socioeconomic deprivation as measured by the Wellbeing Index (WI) in Texas, the United States of America (USA). The current s...

    Authors: Gordon Gong, Eric Belasco, Kristopher A Hargrave, Conrad P Lyford and Billy U Philips Jr
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2012 11:29

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