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Table 9 The impact of prescription drug charges on the volume of prescriptions obtained

From: What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries

Variable Volume Studies
Co-payment - Anderson et al. [59] (SW, NS, TD, R); Anessi Pessina [150] (IT, OS, TD, R); Anis et al. [129] (CA, OS, PD, R); Balkrishnan et al. [130] (US, NS, PD, R); Begg [151] (UK, OS, CD, NR); Birch [152] (UK, NS, CD, NR); Brenna et al. [153] (IT, NS, TD, R); Brian and Gibbens [67] (US, ES, CD, NR); Cameron et al. [154] (AU, CD, NS, R); Delnoij et al. [155] (NE, NS, CD, R); Gardner et al. [137] (NZ, OS, CD, NR); Gardner et al. [29] (US, NS, TD, R); Hansen et al. [156] (US, OS, CD, R); Harris et al. [157] (US, NS, TD, R); Hughes and McGuire [158] (UK, NS, TD, R); Hux et al. [159] (CA, NS, CD, R); Johnson et al. [160] (US, NS, CD, R); Johnson et al. [161] (US, NS, CD, R); Lauterbach et al. [131] (GE, OS, CD, R); Lavers [162] (UK, NS, TD, R); Livingstone et al. [163] (CA, NS, CD, NR); Lundberg et al. [164] (SW, OS, CD, R); Lurk et al. [27] (US, NS, CD, R); McManus et al. [165] (AU, NS, TD, R); Nelson et al. [166] (US, NS, TD, R); O'Brien [54] (UK, NS, TD, R); Reeder and Nelson [61] (US, NS, TD, R); Ryan and Birch [55] (UK, NS, TD, R); Schneeweiss et al. [167] (CA, NS, TD, R); Scott et al. [168] (US, NS, CD, NR); Smith and Watson [169] (UK, OS, CS, R); Starmans et al. [170] (NE, NS, TD, R); Watt et al. [139] (NZ, OS, CD, NR)
Co-payment 0 Anderson et al. [59] (SW, NS, TD, R); Meissner et al. [66] (US, OS, CD, NR); Reeder and Nelson [61] (US, NS, TD, R); Soumerai et al. [62] (US, NS, TD, R)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) 0 Motheral and Henderson [63] (US, NS, CD, R)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) - Fairman et al. [23] (US, NS, CD, R); Gibson et al. [90] (US, NS, PD, R); Landsman et al. [65] (US, NS, TD, R); Motheral and Fairman [28] (US, NS, CD, R); Rector et al. [171] (US, OS, CD, R)
Co-insurance - Foxman et al. [172] (US, ES, CD, R); Johnson et al. [160] (US, NS, CD, R); Johnson et al. [161] (US, NS, CD, R); Liebowitz et al. [48] (US, ES, CD, R); Lohr et al. [140] (US, ES, CD, NR); Martin and McMillan [173] (US, NS, TD, R); Puig-Junoy [174] (SP, OS, TD, R); Steffensen et al. [175] (DK, NS, CD, NR)
Deductible - Blais et al. [141] (CA, NS, TD, R); Socialstyrelsen [176] (SW, OS, CD, NR)
Mixed system - Carrin and Van Dael [177] (BE, OS, TD, R); Gaynor et al. [99] (US, OS, PD, R); Grootendorst and Levine [56] (CA, OS, CD, R); Hong and Shepherd [46] (US, OS, CD, NR); Klick and Stratmann [25] (US, OS, CD, R); Li et al. [31] (CA, NS, PD, R); Van Vliet et al. [178] (NE, OS, CD, R)
Mixed system + Grootendorst and Levine [56] (CA, OS, CD, R)
Mixed system 0 Mott and Schommer [179] (US, OS, CD, R); Ong et al. [60] (SW, NS, TD, R)
Reference pricing (overall) 0 Grootendorst et al. [64] (CA, NS, TD, R)
Reference pricing (overall) - Mabasa and Ma [39] (CA, NS, CS, NR); Schneeweiss et al. [106] (CA, NS, TD, R)
Reference pricing (non-RP drugs) - Grootendorst et al. [64] (CA, NS, TD, R); Mabasa and Ma [39] (CA, NS, CS, NR); Marshall et al. [42] (CA, NS, TD, R); McManus et al. [43] (AU, NS, TD, R); Narine et al. [44](CA, NS, TD, NR)
Change from   
   co-payment to co-insurance - Van Doorslaer [180] (BE, NS, TD, R)
   co-payment to co-insurance and annual maximum - Tamblyn et al. [72] (CA, NS, TD, R)
   co-insurance to deductible - Friis et al. [181] (DK, NS, CD, NR)
   co-insurance to deductible and co-insurance - Blais et al. [182] (CA, NS, TD, R)
   co-insurance to deductible and co-insurance 0 Blais et al. [57] (CA, NS, TD, R); Pilote et al. [30] (CA, NS, CD, R)
Insurance coverage   
   Primary (vs. none) + Artz et al. [108] (US, OS, CD, R); Coulson and Stuart [146] (US, OS, CD, R); Danzon and Pauly [109] (US, OS, CD, NR); Fillenbaum et al. [183] (US, OS, CD, R); Gianfrancesco et al. [110] (US, NS, CD, NR); Grootendorst et al. [184] (CA, OS, CD, R); Shih [185] (US, OS, CD, R); Smith and Garner [111] (US, NS, CD, NR)
   Primary (vs. none) 0 Stuart et al [58] (US, OS, CD, R)
   Supplementary (vs. none) + Caussat and Glaude [34] (FR, OS, CD, R); Coulson and Stuart [146] (US, OS, CD, R); Coulson et al. [186] (US, OS, CD, R); Davis et al. [112] (US, OS, CD, NR); Fillenbaum et al. [183] (US, OS, CD, R); Greenlick and Darsky [187] (CA, OS, CD, NR); Grootendorst et al. [184] (CA, OS, CD, R); Poisal and Chulis [188] (US, OS, CD, NR); Poisal and Murray [117] (US, OS, CD, NR); Rudholm [189] (SW, OS, CD, R); Stuart et al. [119] (US, OS, CD, R); Weeks [120] (US, NS, CD, NR)
Limited list - O'Brien [54] (UK, NS, TD, R); Ryan and Birch [55] (UK, NS, TD, R)
Prescription limit - Soumerai et al. [62] (US, NS, TD, R); Soumerai et al. [37] (US, NS, TD, R)
Reimbursement limit - Hsu et al. [135] (US, OS, PD, R)
  1. Country: AU = Australia; BE = Belgium; CA = Canada; DK = Denmark; FR = France; GE = Germany; IT = Italy; NE = The Netherlands; NZ = New Zealand; SP = Spain; SW = Sweden; UK = United Kingdom; US = United States
  2. Type of study: ES = experimental study; NS = natural study; OS = observational study
  3. Type of data analyzed: CD = cross-sectional data; TD = time-series data; PD = panel data
  4. Type of statistical analysis used: R = regression techniques; NR = no regression techniques