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Table 7 The impact of prescription drug charges on the use of generic or reference-priced drugs

From: What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries

Variable Use of generics Use of other substitutes Studies
Co-payment N/A + Esposito1 [45] (US, OS, CD, R)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) 0 + Huskamp et al. [125] (US, NS, CD, R); Motheral and Fairman [28] (US, NS, CD, R)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) 0 N/A Gibson et al. [90] (US, NS, PD, R); Motheral and Henderson [63] (US, NS, CD, R)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) N/A + Kamal-Bahl and Briesacher [91] (US, OS, CD, R); Landsman et al. [65] (US, NS, TD, R);
Co-insurance 0 N/A Liebowitz et al. [48] (US, ES, CD, R); Newhouse [49] (US, ES, CD, R)
Mixed system + N/A Hong and Shepherd [46] (US, OS, CD, NR); Mortimer [47] (US, OS, CD, R)
Reference pricing (non-RP drugs) + N/A Marshall et al. [42] (CA, NS, TD, R); McManus et al. [43] (AU, NS, TD, R); Narine et al. [44] (CA, NS, TD, NR)
Reference pricing (non-RP drugs) N/A + Mabasa and Ma [39] (CA, NS, CS, NR)
  1. Country: AU = Australia; CA = Canada; US = United States
  2. Type of study: ES = experimental study; NS = natural study; OS = observational study
  3. Type of data analyzed: CD = cross-sectional data; TD = time-series data; PD = panel data
  4. Type of statistical analysis used: R = regression techniques; NR = no regression techniques