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Table 6 Prescription drug charges and the demand for other health services

From: What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries

Good/service affected Variable Effect Study
OTC drugs Co-insurance - Liebowitz [32] (US, ES, CD, R)
  Insurance coverage   
     Supplementary (vs. none) + Caussat and Glaude [34] (FR, OS, CD, R)
     Supplementary (vs. none) - Stuart and Grana [33] (US, OS, CD, R)
  Prescription limit + Cox et al. [35] (US, OS, CD, R)
physician services Co-payment - Anis et al. [129] (CA, OS, PD, R); Balkrishnan et al. [130] (US, NS, PD, R); Lauterbach et al. [131] (GE, OS, CD, R); Winkelmann [132] (GE, NS, PD, R); Winkelmann [133] (GE, NS, CD, R)
  Co-payment 0 Gardner et al. [29] (US, NS, TD, R)
  Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) 0 Motheral and Fairman [28] (US, NS, CD, R)
  Reference pricing - Hazlet and Blough [36] (CA, NS, TD, R)
  Mixed system + Li et al. [31] (CA, NS, PD, R)
  Change from   
     co-insurance to deductible and co-insurance 0 Pilote et al. [30] (CA, NS, CD, R)
  Insurance coverage   
     Public Supplementary (vs. private) + Raynaud [134] (FR, OS, CD, R)
  Reimbursement limit - Hsu et al. [135] (US, OS, PD, R)
outpatient services Co-payment + Balkrishnan et al. [130] (US, NS, PD, R)
  Mixed system + Gaynor et al. [99] (US, OS, PD, R)
  Insurance coverage   
     Public supplementary (vs. none) + Raynaud [134] (FR, OS, CD, R)
inpatient services Co-payment + Anis et al. [129] (CA, OS, PD, R); Atella et al. [76] (IT, NS, CD, R); Balkrishnan et al. [130] (US, NS, PD, R)
  Co-payment 0 Gardner et al. [29] (US, NS, TD, R)
  Reference pricing 0 Hazlet and Blough [36] (CA, NS, TD, R)
  Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) 0 Motheral and Fairman [28] (US, NS, CD, R)
  Mixed system 0 Gaynor et al. [99] (US, OS, PD, R)
  Insurance coverage   
     Supplementary (vs. none) - Schoen et al. [74] (US, NS, CD, NR)
     Public supplementary drug (vs. private) - Lingle et al. [136] (US, OS, CD, R)
  Prescription limit 0 Soumerai et al. [38] (US, NS, TD, R)
  Prescription limit + Soumerai et al. [37] (US, NS, TD, R)
  Reimbursement limit + Hsu et al. [135] (US, OS, PD, R)
ER visits Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) 0 Motheral and Fairman [28] (US, NS, CD, R)
  Reference pricing + Hazlet and Blough [36] (CA, NS, TD, R)
  Change from   
     co-payment to co-insurance and annual maximum + Tamblyn et al. [72] (CA, NS, TD, R)
     co-insurance to deductible and co-insurance 0 Pilote et al. [30] (CA, NS, CD, R)
  Reimbursement limit + Hsu et al. [135] (US, OS, PD, R)
  Prescription limit + Soumerai et al. [37] (US, NS, TD, R)
emergency mental health services Prescription limit + Soumerai et al. [38] (US, NS, TD, R)
nursing home admissions Prescription limit + Soumerai et al. [38] (US, NS, TD, R)
  1. Country: CA = Canada; FR = France; GE = Germany; IT = Italy; US = United States
  2. Type of study: ES = experimental study; NS = natural study; OS = observational study
  3. Type of data analyzed: CD = cross-sectional data; TD = time-series data; PD = panel data
  4. Type of statistical analysis used: R = regression techniques; NR = no regression techniques