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Table 5 The impact of prescription drug charges on patients' out-of-pocket expenditure on prescription drugs

From: What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries

Variable Out-of-pocket expenses Studies
Co-payment + Stuart and Zacker [123] (US, OS, CD, R)
Co-payment 0 Lurk et al. [27] (US, NS, CD, R)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) + Huskamp et al. [124] (US, NS, CD, R); Huskamp et al. [125] (US, NS, CD, R); Kamal-Bahl and Briesacher [91] (US, OS, CD, R)
Reference pricing + Grootendorst et al. [101] (CA, NS, TD, R)
Insurance coverage   
   Supplementary (vs. none) - Alan et al. [69] (CA, OS, CD, R); Alan et al. [68] (CA, OS, CD, R); Alan et al. [126] (CA, OS, CD, R); Blustein [127] (US, OS, CD, R); Federman et al. [114] (US, OS, CD, R)
   Reimbursement limit + Tseng et al. [128] (US, OS, CD, NR)
  1. Country: CA = Canada; US = United States
  2. Type of study: ES = experimental study; NS = natural study; OS = observational study
  3. Type of statistical analysis used: R = regression techniques; NR = no regression techniques