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Table 12 The impact of prescription drug charges on adherence to treatment

From: What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries

Variable Compliance Study
Co-payment - Atella et al. [76] (IT, NS, CD, R); Gibson et al. [191] (US, OS, CD, R); Poirier et al. [77] (CA, NS, TD, NR)
Co-payment 0 Poirier et al. [77] (CA, NS, TD, NR)
Multi-tier formulary (vs. 1- or 2-tiers) - Landsman et al. [65] (US, NS, TD, R); Shrank et al. [79] (US, OS, CD, R); Taira et al. [80] (US, OS, CD, R)
Co-insurance - Reuveni et al. [192] (IS, OS, CD, R)
Mixed system - Ellis et al. [193] (US, OS, CD, R); Goldman et al. [194] (US, OS, CD, R); Mojtabai and Olfson [195] (US, OS, CD, R); Piette et al. [196] (US, OS, CD, R)
Change from   
   co-payment to deductible and co-insurance 0 Pilote et al. [30] (CA, NS, CD, R)
Has co-insurance (vs. has co-payment) - Dor and Encinosa [78] (US, OS, CD, R)
Insurance coverage   
   Primary (vs. none) + Kennedy and Erb [197] (US, OS, CD, NR); Piette et al. [196] (US, OS, CD, R); Thomas et al. [144] (US, OS, CD, R)
   Primary public (vs. private) - Dodrill et al. [198] (US, OS, CD, NR)
   Supplementary (vs. none) + Col et al. [199] (US, OS, CD, R); Safran et al. [200] (US, OS, CD, R); Schoen et al. [74] (US, NS, CD, NR); Steinman et al. [201] (US, OS, CD, R)
Prescription limit - Cox et al. [35] (US, OS, CD, R); Schulz et al. [81] (US, NS, CD, NR)
  1. Country: CA = Canada; IS = Israel; IT = Italy; US = United States
  2. Type of study: ES = experimental study; NS = natural study; OS = observational study
  3. Type of data analyzed: CD = cross-sectional data; TD = time-series data; PD = panel data
  4. Type of statistical analysis used: R = regression techniques; NR = no regression techniques