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Table 11 The impact of prescription drug charges on the use of essential and non-essential medicines

From: What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries

Variable Use of essential medicines Use of non-essential medicines Studies
Co-payment - - McManus et al. [165] (AU, NS, TD, R)
Co-payment 0   Brian and Gibbens [67] (US, ES, CD, NR)
Co-insurance - - Foxman et al. [172] (US, ES, CD, R)
Change from    
   co-payment to co-insurance and annual maximum -   Tamblyn et al. [72] (CA, NS, TD, R)
Prescription limit -   Fortress et al. [190] (US, NS, PD, R); Martin and McMillan [173] (US, NS, TD, R); Soumerai et al. [62] (US, NS, TD, R); Soumerai et al. [38] (US, NS, TD, R)
Prescription limit   - Soumerai et al. [62] (US, NS, TD, R)
  1. Country: AU = Australia; CA = Canada; US = United States
  2. Type of study: ES = experimental study; NS = natural study; OS = observational study
  3. Type of data analyzed: CD = cross-sectional data; TD = time-series data; PD = panel data
  4. Type of statistical analysis used: R = regression techniques; NR = no regression techniques