Open Access

Erratum to: what potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation

International Journal for Equity in Health20065:16

https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-5-16

Received: 05 December 2006

Accepted: 18 December 2006

Published: 18 December 2006

The original article was published in International Journal for Equity in Health 2006 5:14

Abstract

This is a correction article.

Text

In our article [1] there was an error in the calculation of population attributable risk percents (PAR%) for 1996–99 shown in Table 1 (bottom row). The corrected Table is in this correction article (see Table 1). This correction has also required revising Figure 2 (see Figure 1 in this correction article). In the process of making these corrections, we have extended our presentation of the contribution of smoking to mortality gaps by ethnicity and education to include a more explicit acknowledgement of the choice of counterfactual assumption. Figure 1 now shows the estimated 'never smoker rate' plus the 'smoking attributable rate' for each ethnic and educational group. Note that the 'smoking attributable rate' as a percentage of the total rate is equivalent to the relevant PAR% shown in Table 1. 'A' and 'B' signify two alternative counterfactual scenarios that can be used to estimate the contribution of smoking to ethnic or socioeconomic gaps in mortality. Scenario A for ethnic gaps is whereby the non-Māori non-Pacific (nMnP) population adopt the smoking rates of Māori, calculated using direct standardisation as given elsewhere [ref 27 of the original paper]. Scenario A for education gaps is whereby each educational group is given an 'average' smoking rate, calculated using Poisson regression as given elsewhere [ref 75 of the original paper]. Scenario B is more extreme (and arguably somewhat unrealistic) whereby we assume there had never been smoking in New Zealand, with the area labelled 'B' in Figure 1 being that for Scenario B over and above that for Scenario A. The contribution of smoking to gaps under Scenario B is calculated using standard population attributable rate methods, that is the difference in "attributable smoking rates" between Māori and nMnP or between nil and post-school qualifications. Thus estimating the contribution of smoking to mortality gaps depends on how extreme the counterfactual assumptions are [2]. Halving total population smoking rates, and making smoking rates for all ethnic and socioeconomic groups the same, might (allowing for time lags) close mortality gaps by an amount mid-way between Scenarios A and B shown in Figure 1.
Table 1

(Corrected): The estimated percentage decrease (population attributable risk percent (PAR%)) in 45–74 year old mortality rates during 1996–99 had all current and ex-smokers actually been never smokers

 

Men 1996–99

Women 1996–99

Within educational group †

PAR% in total population

PAR% within educational group

PAR% in total population

PAR% within educational group

  

Nil

School

Post-school

 

Nil

School

Post-school

(ii) All current and ex-smokers become never smokers in each educational group (ie, historically smokefree).

26%

29%

26%

23%

25%

27%

24%

23%

Within ethnic group ‡

PAR% in total population

PAR% within ethnic group

PAR% in total population

PAR% within ethnic group

  

Māori

nMnP

  

Māori

nMnP

 

(ii) All current and ex-smokers become never smokers in each ethnic group (ie, historically smokefree).

25%

17%

28%

 

24%

25%

25%

 

nMnP – non-Māori non-Pacific (ie, mainly "New Zealand European" ethnicity). See the footnotes to Figure 1 in the original article for ethnicity definitions.

† Source: Table 4 of reference 75 in the original article.

‡ Source: PAR% calculated from data in reference 27 in the original article.

NB: The educational PAR% estimates are calculated using Poisson rate ratios adjusted for age and ethnicity, whereas the ethnic PAR% estimates are based on age-standardised mortality rate

Figure 1

(Corrected version of Figure 2): The contribution of active tobacco smoking to 45–74 year old age-standardised mortality rates, and gaps in mortality rates, in 1996–99, by ethnicity and education (with the latter as a marker for SEP). nMnP – non-Māori non-Pacific (ie, mainly "New Zealand European" ethnicity). The percentage labels give the percentage contribution of smoking to gaps for Scenario A and the added contribution of Scenario B (see text in this correction article for more details).

Notes

Declarations

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Otago
(2)
Ministry of Health

References

  1. Wilson N, Blakely T, Tobias M: What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation. Int J Equity Health. 2006, 5: 14-10.1186/1475-9276-5-14.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Avendano M: Smoking and inequalities. Lancet. 2006, 368: 1417-1418. 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69600-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Wilson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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