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Table 3 Multivariate associations of WASH access indicators across social stratifiers in 21 refugee camps in 2019

From: Social and geographic inequalities in water, sanitation and hygiene access in 21 refugee camps and settlements in Bangladesh, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, and Zimbabwe

Social stratifier WASH indicator OR CI95% aOR CI95% p-value
Having at least one woman of reproductive age Improved water source 2.06 1.61 2.63 1.94 1.42 2.66 0.00
≥15 L/p/d of improved/protected water 0.63 0.53 0.74 0.95 0.79 1.14 0.59
≥20 L/p/d of improved/protected water 0.53 0.45 0.62 0.93 0.77 1.11 0.42
Open defecation 0.57 0.39 0.84 0.38 0.24 0.60 0.00
Unimproved sanitation 0.90 0.73 1.10 0.90 0.71 1.13 0.37
Limited saniatation 1.35 1.14 1.59 1.84 1.53 2.22 0.00
Basic sanitation 0.87 0.75 1.02 0.67 0.56 0.80 0.00
Sanitation privacy 1.12 0.93 1.36 1.07 0.87 1.32 0.50
Soap presented within 1 min 1.67 1.40 1.98 1.75 1.44 2.13 0.00
Basic hand hygiene facility 1.95 1.57 2.43 1.98 1.56 2.51 0.00
Toilet paper/water in sanitation facility NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Bathing facility 1.98 1.69 2.31 2.50 2.09 2.99 0.00
Menstrual health materials/last period NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Solid waste disposal facility 1.01 0.86 1.18 1.00 0.84 1.20 0.98
Having 4 to 6 members Improved water source 1.74 1.37 2.20 1.66 1.23 2.25 0.00
≥15 L/p/d of improved/protected water 0.48 0.41 0.55 0.49 0.41 0.57 0.00
≥20 L/p/d of improved/protected water 0.36 0.31 0.41 0.37 0.31 0.43 0.00
Open defecation 1.00 0.67 1.50 1.51 0.92 2.47 0.11
Unimproved sanitation 0.95 0.78 1.15 0.98 0.79 1.21 0.85
Limited saniatation 0.90 0.78 1.03 0.77 0.66 0.90 0.00
Basic sanitation 1.15 1.00 1.33 1.26 1.07 1.48 0.01
Sanitation privacy 1.08 0.91 1.28 1.05 0.88 1.25 0.62
Soap presented within 1 min 1.19 1.01 1.41 1.02 0.85 1.23 0.81
Basic hand hygiene facility 1.40 1.18 1.67 1.18 0.98 1.41 0.08
Toilet paper/water in sanitation facility 1.19 0.97 1.46 1.20 0.97 1.47 0.09
Bathing facility 1.12 0.97 1.29 0.88 0.75 1.03 0.11
Menstrual health materials/last period 1.08 0.90 1.29 1.05 0.87 1.26 0.63
Solid waste disposal facility 1.17 1.01 1.34 1.20 1.03 1.41 0.02
Having 7 or more members Improved water source 1.95 1.50 2.52 1.73 1.25 2.40 0.00
≥15 L/p/d of improved/protected water 0.33 0.28 0.39 0.33 0.28 0.39 0.00
≥20 L/p/d of improved/protected water 0.22 0.19 0.25 0.22 0.19 0.26 0.00
Open defecation 0.86 0.56 1.33 1.36 0.81 2.30 0.25
Unimproved sanitation 1.05 0.86 1.27 1.06 0.85 1.31 0.63
Limited saniatation 0.47 0.40 0.55 0.38 0.33 0.45 0.00
Basic sanitation 2.01 1.73 2.33 2.36 2.00 2.78 0.00
Sanitation privacy 0.95 0.80 1.13 0.93 0.78 1.12 0.46
Soap presented within 1 min 1.14 0.96 1.35 0.96 0.79 1.16 0.66
Basic hand hygiene facility 1.22 1.02 1.46 1.01 0.83 1.22 0.92
Toilet paper/water in sanitation facility 1.27 1.02 1.57 1.29 1.04 1.60 0.02
Bathing facility 1.03 0.89 1.20 0.77 0.65 0.91 0.00
Menstrual health materials/last period 1.05 0.87 1.27 1.06 0.87 1.28 0.58
Solid waste disposal facility 1.30 1.12 1.51 1.32 1.12 1.56 0.00
Having disability or elderly members Improved water source 1.47 1.08 2.01 1.62 1.18 2.22 0.00
≥15 L/p/d of improved/protected water 1.27 1.12 1.45 1.31 1.15 1.49 0.00
≥20 L/p/d of improved/protected water 1.20 1.05 1.36 1.24 1.08 1.42 0.00
Open defecation 0.64 0.41 1.02 0.60 0.37 0.95 0.03
Unimproved sanitation 1.76 1.50 2.07 1.74 1.47 2.04 0.00
Limited saniatation 0.82 0.72 0.93 0.89 0.78 1.02 0.11
Basic sanitation 0.90 0.79 1.02 0.83 0.73 0.95 0.01
Sanitation privacy 0.73 0.64 0.84 0.74 0.64 0.86 0.00
Soap presented within 1 min 0.95 0.82 1.11 1.01 0.86 1.18 0.94
Basic hand hygiene facility 1.08 0.93 1.26 1.15 0.99 1.34 0.07
Toilet paper/water in sanitation facility 0.95 0.79 1.14 0.92 0.76 1.11 0.37
Bathing facility 1.30 1.14 1.49 1.44 1.25 1.65 0.00
Menstrual health materials/last period 1.02 0.87 1.18 1.01 0.86 1.18 0.91
Solid waste disposal facility 1.14 1.00 1.31 1.14 0.99 1.30 0.07
  1. Source: Table created from the Standardized Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Surveys, UNHCR, 2019
  2. aReference groups: Households without women of reproductive age, households with 1 to 3 members, and households without members with disability or who are elderly