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Table 3 Standardized indirect, direct, and total effects of socioeconomic status on loneliness in the serial mediation model

From: Pathways to loneliness: a mediation analysis investigating the social gradient of loneliness in persons with disabilities in Switzerland

Indirect effects Std estimate 95% bootstrap CI
(Bold CI indicate those not crossing 0)
Mediators on all levels
SES- > functional independence - > participation restrictions - > self-efficacy - > loneliness − 0.023 − 0.074, − 0.009
SES- > functional independence - > participation restrictions - > emotional support - > loneliness − 0.006 − 0.021, − 0.002
SES- > secondary conditions - > participation restrictions - > self-efficacy- > loneliness − 0.029 − 0.050, − 0.015
SES- > secondary conditions - > participation restrictions - > emotional support - > loneliness − 0.007 − 0.014, − 0.003
Mediators on two levels
SES- > functional independence - > participation restrictions - > loneliness − 0.029 − 0.101, − 0.007
SES- > participation restrictions - > emotional support - > loneliness − 0.019 − 0.038, − 0.009
SES- > secondary conditions - > participation restrictions - > loneliness − 0.037 − 0.069, − 0.012
SES- > participation restrictions - > self-efficacy - > loneliness − 0.077 − 0.134, − 0.043
One mediator
SES- > functional independence - > loneliness 0.016 − 0.066, 0.104
SES- > secondary conditions - > loneliness − 0.160 − 0.330, − 0.072
SES- > participation restrictions - > loneliness − 0.096 − 0.188, − 0.030
SES- > self-efficacy - > loneliness − 0.108 − 0.250, − 0.021
SES - > emotional support - > loneliness − 0.020 − 0.074, 0.025
Total indirect effect − 0.591 − 1.077, − 0.369
Total direct effect − 0.348 −0.781, − 0.016
Total effect − 0.939 − 1.697, − 0.521
Proportion mediated effect 62.9%  
Model fit
X2 453.8 (p value < 0.001)  
CFI 0.91  
RMSEA 0.083 0.00, 0.085
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence Interval, CFI Comparative Fit Index, RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation