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Table 3 Difficulties accessing each type of health care service by visible minority immigrant status

From: Difficulties accessing health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada: examining the intersectionality between immigrant status and visible minority status

  Overall NVMNB VMNB NVMI VMI
Non-emergency surgery (n = 5352)
 Percentage 35 (34, 37) 37 (36, 39) 37 (30, 45) 35 (30, 42) 24 (20, 29)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.97 (0.70, 1.37) 0.92 (0.69, 1.21) 0.54 (0.41, 0.70)***
Non-emergency diagnostic test (n = 11,046)
 Percentage 39 (38, 40) 40 (39, 41) 37 (32, 43) 39 (35, 44) 36 (32, 39)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.88 (0.69, 1.12) 0.97 (0.81, 1.17) 0.83 (0.70, 0.98)*
Appointment with family doctor (n = 21,954)
 Percentage 37 (36, 38) 37 (36, 38) 38 (34, 41) 35 (32, 38) 38 (35, 41)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.04 (0.88, 1.24) 0.95 (0.82, 1.09) 1.06 (0.94, 1.20)
Appointment with medical specialist (n = 13,875)
 Percentage 46 (45, 47) 46 (45, 48) 45 (40, 50) 43 (39, 47) 44 (41, 48)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.96 (0.78, 1.18) 0.88 (0.75, 1.04) 0.91 (0.79, 1.06)
Appointment for rehabilitative care (n = 10,127)
 Percentage 44 (43, 45) 45 (44, 47) 48 (42, 54) 46 (41, 51) 33 (30, 37)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.11 (0.87, 1.41) 1.04 (0.84, 1.28) 0.60 (0.50, 0.73)***
Dental care (n = 20,055)
 Percentage 48 (47, 49) 50 (48, 51) 45 (41, 49) 46 (43, 50) 44 (41, 47)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.82 (0.69, 0.97)* 0.88 (0.77, 1.01) 0.79 (0.69, 0.89)***
Mental health care (n = 9681)
 Percentage 41 (39, 42) 42 (40, 43) 45 (40, 51) 37 (32, 42) 35 (31, 39)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.16 (0.92, 1.45) 0.83 (0.65, 1.04) 0.76 (0.62, 0.92)**
Medical treatment (n = 4438)
 Percentage 20 (18, 21) 20 (19, 22) 20 (14, 27) 20 (15, 26) 18 (15, 23)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.97 (0.62, 1.50) 0.97 (0.68, 1.40) 0.89 (0.66, 1.20)
Natural medicine (n = 4820)
 Percentage 23 (22, 25) 24 (22, 25) 25 (19, 32) 26 (21, 33) 21 (17, 26)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.08 (0.76, 1.55) 1.15 (0.83, 1.59) 0.87 (0.66, 1.15)
Emergency services/urgent care (n = 6369)
 Percentage 19 (18, 20) 18 (17, 20) 21 (15, 28) 14 (10, 19) 24 (20, 28)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.18 (0.80, 1.75) 0.73 (0.51, 1.04) 1.42 (1.11, 1.82)**
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; NVMNB non-visible minority native-born, VMNB visible minority native-born, NVMI non-visible minority immigrants, VMI visible minority immigrants; odds ratio obtained from logistic regression; point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (in parentheses)