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Table 2 Decomposition of concentration index for congenital heart disease in Iran

From: Socioeconomic inequality in congenital heart diseases in Iran

  β Mean ECI Absolute Contribution Contribution (%)
Social variables
Socio-economic status Poorest 0.59 0.20 −0.57 − 0.27 41.39
Poorer 0.55 0.20 −0.28 − 0.12 18.95
Middle 0.27 0.23 0.05 0.01 −1.91
Richer 0.24 0.18 0.33 0.06 −8.77
Richest Ref
Sum   49.66
Mother’s education Illiterate 0.14 0.14 −0.25 −0.02 3.02
Primary school 0.08 0.19 −0.21 − 0.01 1.96
Middle school 0.01 0.24 −0.06 0.00 0.09
High school 0.07 0.24 0.14 0.01 −1.45
University Ref
Sum   3.62
Father’s education Illiterate −0.19 0.06 0.04 0.00 0.28
Primary school −0.21 0.09 −0.19 0.01 −2.21
Middle school −0.25 0.17 −0.28 0.05 −7.32
High school −0.10 0.29 −0.08 0.01 −1.43
University Ref
Sum   −10.68
Mother’s occupation Housewife 0.11 0.61 −0.40 − 0.11 16.52
Clerical jobs −0.08 0.23 0.40 −0.03 4.53
Non-clerical jobs Ref
Sum   21.05
Father’s occupation Clerical jobs 0.20 0.38 0.63 0.19 −29.46
Non-clerical jobs 0.19 0.56 −0.38 − 0.16 24.88
Unemployed Ref
Sum   −4.58
Nationality Iranian 0.13 0.96 0.05 0.02 −3.84
Non-Iranian Ref
Place of residence Urban 0.00 0.82 0.29 0.00 0.00
Rural Ref
Number of children One child −0.16 0.34 − 0.05 0.01 −1.67
Two children −0.09 0.44 0.06 −0.01 1.46
> = 3 children Ref
   −0.21
History of family marriage Yes −0.10 0.24 −0.24 0.02 −3.54
No Ref
Total social variables   51.47
Medical/biological variables
Mother’s age at delivery time ≤17 (yr) −0.01 0.02 −0.05 0.00 −0.01
18–28 (yr) 0.04 0.34 −0.09 0.00 0.75
29–39 (yr) 0.10 0.52 0.13 0.03 −4.16
> = 40 (yr)
Sum   −3.41
Father’s age 17–25 (yr) 0.17 0.08 −0.12 −0.01 1.00
26–30 (yr) 0.15 0.18 0.07 0.01 −1.16
31–35 (yr) 0.13 0.23 −0.09 − 0.01 1.66
36–40 (yr) −0.02 0.29 0.09 0.00 0.32
> 41 (yr) Ref
Sum   1.82
Pregnancy care Have −0.16 0.80 0.28 −0.14 22.06
Not have Ref
History of abortion Yes 0.10 0.23 −0.38 − 0.03 5.38
No Ref
Chronic disease Have 0.03 0.33 −0.28 − 0.01 1.71
Not have Ref
Using folic acid Yes −0.11 0.80 0.29 −0.10 15.70
No Ref
Total Medical/biological variable   43.25
Life style variables
Physical activity Enough 0.01 0.67 0.15 0.00 −0.62
Not enough Ref
Using alcohol Yes 0.07 0.20 −0.31 − 0.02 2.67
No Ref
Smoking Yes 0.05 0.19 - 0.32 −0.01 1.87
No Ref
Total life style   3.92
Total observed   −0.64 98.64
Residual   −0.01 1.36
Total   −0.65 100.00