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Table 1 Components of cost categorized by the type of cost from multiple perspectives

From: Comprehensive economic evaluation of enhanced recovery after surgery in hepatectomy

Perspective Direct cost Indirect cost Intangible cost
Patients Direct medical cost: hospitalisation cost (medical expenses during pre-, intra- and postoperative)
Direct non-medical cost:
food expenses; transportation; employment of care workers; others (accommodation fees, etc)
Productivity loss of patients and their families due to hospitalisation Pain and anxiety of patient and their families caused by disease;
patient medical experience and satisfaction
Hospitals Standard input:
routine medical services; resource consumption; administrative management
ERAS specific input:
salary of ERAS full-time nurse; quarterly ERAS meeting cost; ERAS database cost;
ERAS patient log cost
Labor and time cost of medical staff
Society Hospital standard input:
routine medical services; resource consumption; administrative management
Hospital ERAS specific input:
salary of ERAS full-time nurse; quarterly ERAS meeting cost; ERAS database cost;
ERAS patient log cost
Direct non-medical cost:
food expenses; transportation; employment of care workers; others (accommodation fees, etc)
Productivity loss of patients and their families due to hospitalisation Psychosocial influence