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Table 2 Personal protection behaviour and workplace policy among people with different occupations

From: Unequal availability of workplace policy for prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 across occupations and its relationship with personal protection behaviours: a cross-sectional survey

   Manager and administrator Professional Associate professional Clerical support worker Manual labourer1 Total P-value2
N = 183
n (Col%)
N = 440
n (Col%)
N = 256
n (Col%)
N = 104
n (Col%)
N = 65
n (Col%)
N = 1048
n (Col%)
Hand Hygiene Hand wash before meals
Never 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.3) 0.736
When needed 11 (6.0) 23 (5.2) 9 (3.5) 4 (3.9) 4 (6.2) 51 (4.9)  
Sometimes 28 (15.3) 77 (17.5) 47 (18.4) 18 (17.3) 16 (24.6) 186 (17.8)  
Always 144 (78.7) 338 (76.8) 200 (78.1) 81 (77.9) 45 (69.2) 808 (77.1)  
Hand wash after toileting
Never 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) 0.443
When needed 2 (1.1) 4 (0.9) 1 (0.4) 1 (1.0) 2 (3.1) 10 (1.0)  
Sometimes 4 (2.2) 4 (0.9) 3 (1.2) 1 (1.0) 3 (4.6) 15 (1.4)  
Always 177 (96.7) 431 (98.0) 252 (98.4) 102 (98.1) 60 (92.3) 1022 (97.5)  
Use of alcohol hard rub
Never 6 (3.3) 26 (5.9) 12 (4.7) 4 (3.9) 5 (7.7) 53 (5.1) 0.812
When needed 27 (14.8) 57 (13.0) 39 (15.2) 14 (13.5) 12 (18.5) 149 (14.2)  
Sometimes 41 (22.4) 117 (26.6) 57 (22.3) 27 (26.0) 13 (20.0) 255 (24.3)  
Always 109 (59.6) 240 (54.6) 148 (57.8) 59 (56.7) 35 (53.9) 591 (56.4)  
Face Mask Wear mask
Never 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5) 1 (0.4) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.4) 0.599
When needed 3 (1.6) 7 (1.6) 3 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (3.1) 15 (1.4)  
Sometimes 7 (3.8) 10 (2.3) 7 (2.7) 1 (1.0) 4 (6.2) 29 (2.8)  
Always 173 (94.5) 421 (95.7) 245 (95.7) 102 (98.1) 59 (90.8) 1000 (95.4)  
Household Hygiene Put disinfectants into toilets
Never 68 (37.2) 173 (39.3) 96 (37.5) 32 (30.8) 21 (32.3) 390 (37.2) 0.042*
When needed 42 (23.0) 117 (26.6) 50 (19.5) 33 (31.7) 14 (21.5) 256 (24.4)  
Sometimes 29 (15.9) 75 (17.1) 48 (18.8) 21 (20.2) 20 (30.8) 193 (18.4)  
Always 44 (24.0) 75 (17.1) 62 (24.2) 18 (17.3) 10 (15.4) 209 (19.9)  
Put disinfectants into drain-pipe
Never 58 (31.7) 160 (36.4) 100 (39.1) 37 (35.6) 20 (30.8) 375 (35.8) 0.108
When needed 52 (28.4) 133 (30.2) 60 (23.4) 24 (23.1) 24 (36.9) 293 (28.0)  
Sometimes 38 (20.8) 77 (17.5) 48 (18.8) 27 (26.0) 17 (26.2) 207 (19.8)  
Always 35 (19.1) 70 (15.9) 48 (18.8) 16 (15.4) 4 (6.2) 173 (16.5)  
Social Distancing Avoid leaving home
Never 7 (3.8) 15 (3.4) 9 (3.5) 1 (1.0) 4 (6.2) 36 (3.4) 0.947
When needed 30 (16.4) 68 (15.5) 45 (17.6) 17 (16.4) 10 (15.4) 170 (16.2)  
Sometimes 55 (30.1) 135 (30.7) 70 (27.3) 28 (26.9) 18 (27.7) 306 (29.2)  
Always 91 (49.7) 222 (50.5) 132 (51.6) 58 (55.8) 33 (50.8) 536 (51.2)  
Avoid contacting neighbor
Never 11 (6.0) 20 (4.6) 20 (7.8) 2 (1.9) 3 (4.6) 56 (5.3) 0.377
When needed 21 (11.5) 57 (13.0) 29 (11.3) 12 (11.5) 11 (16.9) 130 (12.4)  
Sometimes 35 (19.1) 82 (18.6) 41 (16.0) 26 (25.0) 16 (24.6) 200 (19.1)  
Always 116 (63.4) 281 (63.9) 166 (64.8) 64 (61.5) 35 (53.9) 662 (63.2)  
Availability of workplace guidelines and measures
  No 22 (12.0) 38 (8.6) 19 (7.4) 12 (11.5) 15 (23.1) 106 (10.1) 0.003**
  Yes 161 (88.0) 402 (91.4) 237 (92.6) 92 (88.5) 50 (76.9) 942 (89.9)  
  1. Note: 1. Manual labourer: service/sales workers and craft workers, plant/machine operators and assemblers, elementary workers, and farm workers, animal husbandry workers and fishermen, occupations unidentifiable or inadequately described. 2. These P value came from Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01