Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of GLOBE respondents

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors: exploring mediation pathways through material conditions and time orientation

   Educational level (2004)
Total Lowest Low Middle High
N = 2692a N = 196 N = 896 N = 604 N = 891
Age (2004)
 Mean (SD) 55.2 (13.6) 63.1 (10.9) 59.9 (10.8) 50.9 (13.5) 50.5 (13.9)
Gender (2004), %
 Female 53.6 65.8 64.1 47.8 42.9
 Male 46.4 34.2 35.9 52.2 57.0
 NA 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Time orientation (2011)
 Mean (SD) 3.2 (0.5) 3.0 (0.5) 3.2 (0.5) 3.3 (0.5) 3.4 (0.4)
 Range 1.1–4.8 1.2–4.2 1.1–4.7 1.8–4.8 1.8–4.5
 NA, % 20.2 19.9 16.6 20.5 23.5
Financial strain (2011), %
 No difficulty 76.7 57.7 72.8 74.5 87.0
 Some difficulty 19.2 32.7 22.5 21.7 10.7
 Great difficulty 2.9 7.1 2.9 3.6 1.7
 NA 1.2 2.6 1.8 0.2 0.7
Housing tenure (2011), %
 Owned home 68.6 26.0 57.7 72.8 87.8
 Rented home 30.2 72.4 40.4 26.2 12.0
 NA 1.2 1.5 1.9 1.0 0.2
Monthly income group (2011), %
 0–1200 Euros 7.7 28.1 10.7 4.0 1.7
 1200–1800 Euros 17.3 33.2 25.8 16.1 5.6
 1800–2600 Euros 25.4 13.8 30.1 30.8 18.9
 2600–4000 Euros 26.5 4.6 15.6 32.3 39.7
 > 4000 Euros 11.7 0.5 3.3 8.6 25.8
 Unknown/refuse to say/NA 11.4 19.9 14.4 8.3 8.3
Smoking status (2014), %
 Non-smoker 87.6 87.6 81.6 86.4 85.3
 Smoker 11.3 15.8 11.6 14.2 8.1
 NA 1.2 2.6 2.0 0.5 0.3
Sports participation (2014), %
 Inactive 40.3 62.2 46.9 36.9 30.3
 Little active 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.3 2.9
 Moderately active 12.9 5.1 11.0 15.1 15.8
 Active 34.9 17.3 29.0 37.6 43.5
 NA 10.1 13.8 11.7 9.1 7.4
BMI (2014), %
 Underweight 0.9 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.9
 Normal 41.3 36.7 33.9 39.1 51.3
 Overweight 41.0 34.7 45.5 44.4 35.9
 Obese 14.5 22.4 17.0 14.4 10.3
 NA 2.3 4.6 2.6 1.7 1.6
Self-assessed health (2014), %
 Poor 2.2 7.1 2.6 1.7 1.0
 Fair 16.5 33.2 22.8 11.4 8.3
 Good 50.7 47.4 54.0 51.5 48.1
 Very good 22.1 10.2 15.0 26.5 29.4
 Excellent 7.9 0.5 4.8 8.4 12.8
 NA 0.7 1.5 0.9 0.5 0.3
  1. P-values from Pearson chi-square tests for independence for all variables by educational level were < 0.001, indicating that the null hypotheses of each variable being independent of educational level could be rejected
  2. BMI body mass index, NA missing values, SD standard deviation
  3. a N = 105 respondents had missing data for educational level (N = 97) or reported having “Other” education (N = 8)