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Table 2 Characteristics, Healthcare Service Utilization, and Delivery Modes of Mothers with Rural and Urban Hukou Status in City A and City B

From: Hukou-based rural–urban disparities in maternal health service utilization and delivery modes in two Chinese cities in Guangdong Province

  City A City B
Rural Urban T-Value P Rural Urban T-Value P
Age 29.47 31.27 46.44 < .001 29.88 31.97 38.77 < .001
(4.20) (4.73) (4.06) (4.54)
  Rural Urban Chi-square P Rural Urban Chi-square P
Reached minimum recommended number of prenatal care visits 18,588 23,407 0.34 .560 7,732 9,130 45.43 < .001
76.84% 76.63% 62.08% 68.18%
Delivery at tertiary hospital 3,705 6,051 186.11 < .001 4,802 8,948 2100.00 < .001
15.32% 19.81% 38.55% 66.81%
Delivery via Cesarean section 8,994 12,275 51.33 < .001 4,714 5,445 21.37 < .001
37.18% 40.19% 37.85% 40.66%
  Rural Urban Z-statistics P Rural Urban Z-statistics P
Total medical cost
Delivery via Cesarean section 6197.37 6424.16 13.61 < .001 8572.31 9571.51 20.37 < .001
(2035.09) (2532.35) (4179.88) (3992.57)
Natural delivery 3372.83 3574.56 21.10 < .001 4687.44 6055.16 33.66 < .001
(2857.45) (2020.54) (2331.49) (2788.77)
N 24,189 30,544    12,456 13,393   
  1. Note. We present means and standard deviations for age and conducted a t-test to compare means between the two groups. We present medians and standard deviations for spending and conducted a Mann-Whitney test to compare medians between the two groups. We present percentages and number of observations for whether the delivery took place at a tertiary hospital and whether a Cesarean section was performed at delivery and conducted χ2 tests to compare means between the two groups. We used mothers with urban hukou status as the reference group.
  2. *p < .1, **p < .05, ***p < .001