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Table 3 Prevalence of social exclusion and other social factors by city (weighted percentagesa)

From: The cumulation of ill health and low agency in socially excluded city dwellers in the Netherlands: how to better identify high-risk/high-need population segments with public health survey data

  Amsterdam Rotterdam The Hague Utrecht TOTAL
Social Exclusion
 SEI-HS index
  Moderate to strong 8.1 12.0 13.8 7.1 10.3
  Some or no 91.9 88.0 86.2 92.9 89.7
Social Risk Factors
 Educational level (self-reported) b
  Low 7.4 11.9 9.5 6.9 9.0
  Not low 92.6 88.1 90.5 93.1 91.0
 Standardised annual household incomec
  Low: <  16,100 euro 26.0 25.4 22.1 23.8 24.7
  Not low 74.0 74.6 77.9 76.2 75.3
 Labour market position
  Low: unemployed, disabled, on social assistance 12.8 16.7 15.5 10.3 14.1
  Not low 87.2 83.3 84.5 89.7 85.9
 Migration background
  Native Dutch 49.5 52.3 48.7 68.7 52.9
  Western migration background 18.2 12.1 17.0 11.2 15.3
  Non-Western migration background 32.2 35.6 34.3 20.1 31.8
  1. a Sampling weights were calculated by Statistics Netherlands based on a linear model with 9 sociodemographic variables and their interaction terms [28]
  2. b Low: no or elementary schooling (PO); Not low: general secondary education, primary vocational education (MAVO, LBO); higher secondary education, secondary vocational training (HAVO, VWO, MBO); higher professional education and university (HBO, WO)
  3. c For this question, multiple answers were possible. The answers were categorised hierarchically with” > 20 h/week paid labour” first, followed by” 1–20 h/week paid labour” and” retired”. Those who checked “I am unemployed/job-seeking”, “I am disabled for work” or “I am on social assistance” and did not check one of the former three categories were classified as” unemployed, disabled, on social assistance”. The remaining respondents who checked “I am housewife/man” or “I am studying” were classified as “housewife/man or student”. Those considered “unemployed, disabled, on social assistance” were subsequently classified as low, and the remaining categories were classified as not low