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Table 2 Trends and differences in access to safe drinking water in Peruvian households, ENAHO 2008–2018

From: Inequalities in access to safe drinking water in Peruvian households according to city size: an analysis from 2008 to 2018

Year General population (excluding rural areas) City size
Small Medium Large
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
2008 46.7 (45.90–47.47) 29.2 (28.32–30.17) 49.1 (47.70–50.42) 65.6 (64.08–67.07)
2009 43.0 (42.19–43.78) 22.5 (21.67–23.34) 42.9 (41.57–44.26) 66.0 (64.46–67.45)
2010 45.2 (44.42–46.01) 24.1 (23.29–24.98) 44.3 (42.91–45.59) 68.9 (67.46–70.34)
2011 48.4 (47.65–49.11) 27.8 (27.02–28.64) 44.9 (43.61–46.10) 74.3 (73.04–75.59)
2012 47.8 (47.05–48.53) 28.0 (27.22–28.89) 45.1 (43.86–46.37) 72.3 (70.98–73.61)
2013 50.8 (50.12–51.40) 28.1 (27.38–28.84) 49.2 (47.98–50.32) 78.4 (77.35–79.48)
2014 49.3 (48.68–49.98) 28.0 (27.32–28.81) 48.0 (46.84–49.21) 75.1 (73.97–76.22)
2015 46.8 (46.13–47.48) 23.0 (22.30–23.73) 45.6 (44.35–46.75) 73.7 (72.49–74.89)
2016 48.3 (47.64–48.93) 26.2 (25.51–26.89) 49.4 (48.18–50.52) 73.8 (72.62–75.02)
2017 49.1 (48.50–49.79) 27.4 (26.74–28.15) 48.9 (47.72–50.09) 74.4 (73.23–75.56)
2018 51.9 (51.23–52.48) 29.1 (28.36–29.74) 52.4 (51.25–53.55) 78.4 (77.31–79.49)
P-value, test for trends* < 0.001 0.009 < 0.001 < 0.001
Difference 2018 vs. 2008
Percentage points (95% CI) 5.2 (4.2; 6.2) −0.2 (− 0.9; 1.3) 3.3 (1.6; 5.1) 12.8 (11.0; 14.7)
  1. % include the factor expansion and the complex survey design for each year of the ENAHO surveys
  2. The symbol (*) indicated the method to obtain the p-value