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Table 1 Characteristics of 31 provinces in China, 2004–2016

From: Hospital bed supply and inequality as determinants of maternal mortality in China between 2004 and 2016

Characteristics Between-province variations Within-province change, 2004 to 2016
Mean (95% CI) Median (Quantile range)
2004 2009 2016 2004 2009 2016
Independent Variables
 Hospital beds per 1000 population 2.76 (2.44, 3.08) 3.48 (3.22, 3.73) 5.36 (5.11, 5.61) 2.41 (0.92) 3.31 (0.84) 5.39 (1.27) 2.60 (2.22, 2.97)
 Gini coefficient 0.32 (0.28, 0.35) 0.30 (0.26, 0.33) 0.25 (0.22, 0.28) 0.34 (0.09) 0.31 (0.09) 0.26 (0.07) −0.07 (−0.09, − 0.05)
 Birth rate, ‰ 11.45 (10.26, 12.65) 11.38 (10.40, 12.36) 11.80 (10.72, 12.88) 11.67 (4.56) 11.70 (4.17) 12.18 (3.93) 0.35 (−0.36, 1.06)
 Female illiteracy, % 16.18 (12.67, 19.69) 11.84 (8.75, 14.93) 9.17 (6.11, 12.22) 14.22 (12.03) 9.90 (7.17) 7.32 (5.12) −7.01 (−8.25, −5.77)
 GDP per capita, 1000 yuan 19.39 (14.01, 24.76) 34.75 (27.25, 42.24) 56.77 (47.33, 66.20) 13.23 (12.45) 26.33 (22.44) 46.38 (32.06) 37.38 (32.13, 42.63)
 Urbanization rate, % 29.94 (24.02, 35.86) 49.27 (43.89, 54.65) 57.85 (53.28, 62.42) 25.99 (12.47) 46.00 (15.65) 56.21 (14.39) 27.91 (24.23, 31.59)
 Facility birth rate, % 81.68 (75.40, 87.97) 94.91 (91.38, 98.44) 99.47 (98.90, 100.04) 85.40 (21.40) 98.50 (3.80) 100 (0.40) 17.79 (11.89, 23.69)
Dependent Variable
 Maternal mortality ratio, per 100,000 live births 55.00 (34.56, 75.44) 28.84 (14.33, 43.35) 16.63 (9.80, 23.46) 42.80 (43.70) 19.20 (16.40) 12.70 (8.10) −38.37 (−52.46, −24.28)
  1. Note: CI: confidence interval