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Table 4 Regression coefficients (b), Absolute contribution and Relative contribution of determinants to income related inequality in untreated morbidity in India over the years

From: Horizontal inequity in self-reported morbidity and untreated morbidity in India: Evidence from National Sample Survey Data

   2017–18 2014 2004
UNTREATED MORBIDITY   Coeff EI Abs. % Con Coeff EI Abs. % Con Coeff EI Abs. %Con
Individuals reporting ailment and not availing treatment in last 15 days.
Need Variables
Age & Sex Interaction 15–29 Maleb
0–14 Male − 0.053** − 0.157 0.008 − 0.096 − 0.073** − 0.134 0.010 − 0.102 − 0.082*** − 0.135 0.011 − 0.122
30–44 Male 0.000 0.012 0.000 0.000 0.068* −0.012 − 0.001 0.008 − 0.018 − 0.017 0.000 − 0.004
45–59 Male −0.020 0.048 −0.001 0.011 0.024 0.059 0.001 −0.015 −0.008 0.042 0.000 0.004
60+ Male −0.034 0.049 −0.003 0.037 0.019 0.081 0.001 −0.015 0.038** 0.073 0.003 −0.031
0–14 Female −0.037 − 0.123 0.005 − 0.053 −0.051* − 0.097 0.005 − 0.051 −0.062*** − 0.127 0.008 − 0.088
15–29 Female −0.022 − 0.043 0.001 − 0.011 −0.003 − 0.031 0.000 − 0.001 0.000 − 0.012 0.000 0.000
30–44 Female −0.015 −0.007 0.000 −0.001 0.032 −0.017 − 0.001 0.006 − 0.025 0.007 0.000 0.002
45–59 Female −0.048 0.085 −0.004 0.047 0.026 0.100 0.003 −0.027 −0.039** 0.075 −0.003 0.033
60+ Female −0.042 0.107 −0.005 0.052 0.026 0.053 0.001 −0.014 0.007 0.088 0.001 −0.006
Duration of Illness Less than equal to 10 daysb
More than 10 days −0.113*** 0.356 −0.040 0.463 −0.134*** 0.268 −0.036 0.371 −0.030*** 0.215 −0.006 0.071
SUBTOTAL (NEED)    −0.039 0.449    −0.015 0.159    0.013 −0.142
Non-Need Variables
Marital Status Never Marriedb
Currently Married 0.011 0.211 0.002 −0.028 −0.057** 0.161 −0.009 0.095 −0.038** 0.167 −0.006 0.071
Widowed/Divorced 0.026 0.089 0.002 −0.027 − 0.062** 0.056 − 0.003 0.036 0.025 0.062 0.002 −0.017
Location Urbanb
Rural 0.012 −0.498 − 0.006 0.066 0.014 −0.438 − 0.006 0.064 0.031*** −0.422 − 0.013 0.146
Social Group Othersb
Scheduled Tribe −0.007 −0.088 0.001 −0.008 − 0.008 −0.094 0.001 −0.008 0.035** −0.070 − 0.002 0.027
Other Backward Caste −0.010 −0.134 0.001 −0.016 − 0.006 −0.130 0.001 −0.007 0.020** −0.137 − 0.003 0.030
Scheduled Caste −0.004 −0.082 0.000 −0.004 − 0.020** −0.024 0.000 −0.005 − 0.003 −0.093 0.000 −0.003
Health Insurance Insurance coverage including government schemesb
No coverage 0.015** −0.218 −0.003 0.038 −0.039*** − 0.169 0.007 − 0.069 0.008 − 0.046 0.000 0.004
Education Formal schooling Secondary & aboveb
Schooling till middle 0.010 0.021 0.000 −0.002 0.031** 0.048 0.001 −0.015 −0.002 0.080 0.000 0.001
Schooling till primary 0.034** −0.080 −0.003 0.031 0.028** −0.043 −0.001 0.013 0.019* 0.015 0.000 −0.003
Literate without schooling 0.041 −0.004 0.000 0.002 0.033 −0.012 0.000 0.004 0.023 0.002 0.000 −0.001
Illiterate 0.028** −0.252 −0.007 0.081 0.014 −0.285 −0.004 0.041 0.036*** −0.354 −0.013 0.143
Employment Wage workerb
Self-employed 0.005 −0.175 − 0.001 0.011 0.021** −0.122 − 0.003 0.027 − 0.015 −0.052 0.001 −0.008
Casual laborer 0.009 −0.230 −0.002 0.023 0.023* −0.218 −0.005 0.053 0.008 −0.288 −0.002 0.027
Others −0.004 0.209 −0.001 0.009 0.038** 0.125 0.005 −0.049 −0.016 0.127 −0.002 0.023
Religion Hinduismb
Islam −0.020** −0.075 0.002 −0.017 0.018 −0.068 − 0.001 0.013 0.003 −0.080 0.000 0.003
Christianity 0.001 0.058 0.001 −0.009 0.000 0.046 0.000 −0.003 0.002** 0.051 0.002 −0.017
Others −0.038** 0.031 −0.001 0.013 −0.009 0.020 0.000 0.002 −0.065*** 0.043 −0.003 0.031
State Type More Developed(Non-EAG) Statesb
Least Dev. (EAG)States 0.031*** −0.466 −0.014 0.167 0.059*** −0.386 −0.023 0.236 0.007 −0.362 −0.003 0.028
Housing Conditions Low-risk householdsb
Medium-risk households 0.012 0.012 0.000 −0.002 −0.007 0.146 −0.001 0.011 −0.004 0.019 0.000 0.001
High-risk households 0.016* −0.411 − 0.006 0.075 0.017 −0.545 − 0.009 0.095 0.019** −0.512 − 0.010 0.106
Household Size Less than 10 membersb
More than 10 members −0.051** −0.054 0.003 −0.032 − 0.061** −0.062 0.004 −0.039 − 0.025 −0.094 0.002 −0.026
Expenditure Quintiles Highest MPCE Quintileb
Fourth MPCE Quintile 0.000 0.311 0.000 0.000 0.004 0.322 0.001 −0.013 −0.006 0.341 −0.002 0.023
Middle MPCE Quintile −0.015 0.072 −0.001 0.012 −0.016 0.035 −0.001 0.006 0.007 0.075 0.001 −0.006
Second MPCE Quintile −0.019* −0.253 0.005 −0.057 0.032 −0.283 − 0.009 0.094 0.023** −0.262 − 0.006 0.067
First MPCE Quintile 0.022* −0.736 −0.016 0.188 0.030** −0.692 −0.020 0.212 0.057*** −0.729 −0.042 0.462
SUBTOTAL (NON-NEED)    −0.044 0.515    −0.076 0.792    −0.100 1.111
Residual −0.003 −0.003 − 0.003 0.036 − 0.005* −0.005 − 0.005 0.049 − 0.003*** −0.003 − 0.003 0.030
EI (Unstandardized)    −0.087 1.000    −0.096   1.000   −0.090 1.000
  1. Standard error (S.E) in parentheses
  2. Level of significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1