Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics, morbidity burden, and healthcare utilization for Spanish nationals and immigrants in Spain

From: Overuse or underuse? Use of healthcare services among irregular migrants in a north-eastern Spanish region

  Spanish nationals Foreign-born (all) Africa Asia Eastern Europe Latin America Western Europe & North America
DM IM DM IM DM IM DM IM DM IM DM IM
Demographic information
N 930,131 123,432 17,152 29,643 2563 4621 327 39,678 7429 39,829 4643 9661 2190
Women, % 51.42 48.55 33.76 31.96 18.77 43.24 37.61 51.23 32.12 59.09 45.53 47.49 31.37
Age
Mean (SD) 51.91 (0.020) 38.18 (0.034) 38.06 (0.083) 37.39 (0.063) 37.85 (0.204) 38.49 (0.184) 39.71 (0.664) 36.71 (0.053) 37.23 (0.118) 38.51 (0.063) 38.89 (0.170) 45. 12 (0.147) 39.16 (0.248)
18–44 years, % 39.71 74.11 76.10 78.27 80.53 72.80 69.11 78.79 78.58 71.39 72.73 53.97 70.68
45–64 years, % 32.14 22.94 22.11 19.48 17.17 23.31 26.91 20.26 20.62 25.14 24.6 35.26 26.94
65+ years, % 28.16 2.95 1.79 2.25 2.3 3.90 3.98 0.95 0.79 3.47 2.67 10.78 2.37
Length of stay in Spain ≥5 years, % 68.61 63.23 62.77 73.55 80.65 85.32 53.65 52.4 75.73 78.35 57.55 52.51
Morbidity burden
Healthy users/non-users, % 21.15 36.02 75.29 36.64 73.16 47.72 79.51 41.15 79.26 29.92 68.49 32.61 78.13
Low/moderate morbidity, % 72.03 60.54 24.31 59.65 26.3 49.49 20.18 56.01 20.35 66.39 31.12 63.02 21.55
High/very high morbidity, % 6.81 3.44 0.4 3.71 0.55 2.79 0.31 2.84 0.39 3.68 0.39 4.38 0.32
Use of Primary Care
No visits to doctor, % 22.83 34.19 86.5 33.35 79.17 46.09 90.83 38.32 87.66 29.18 85.89 34.71 91.78
No visits to nurse, % 48.55 71.42 95.56 70.8 93.64 80.09 97.86 74.69 95.76 69.3 95.48 64.47 96.94
Mean (SD) # of visits to doctor, normal care 6.7 (8.4) 4.0 (5.6) 0.5 (2.0) 4.1 (5.6) 0.8 (2.2) 2.7 (4.6) 0.2 (0.8) 3.3 (5.1) 0.5 (1.9) 4.5 (5.8) 0.6 (2.2) 4.5 (6.6) 0.3 (1.8)
Mean (SD) # of visits to doctor, urgent care 0.4 (1.0) 0.4 (1.1) 0.001 (0.1) 0.6 (1.3) 0.004 (0.1) 0.2 (0.9) 0 (0) 0.4 (1.0) 0.0003 (0.2) 0.3 (0.9) 0.0006 (0.04) 0.3 (1.0) 0.002 (0.1)
Mean (SD) # of visits to nurse 3.7 (7.7) 1.0 (3.5) 0.1 (0.7) 1.1 (3.5) 0.1 (0.8) 0.8 (3.4) 0.6 (5.1) 0.8 (3.3) 0.1 (0.8) 1.1 (3.3) 0.1 (0.6) 1.8 (4.8) 0.1 (0.7)
Use of Specialized Care
No visits, % 46.86 61.15 93.48 66.52 92.51 69.88 97.25 65.37 94.18 52.33 91.19 59.57 96.48
Mean (SD) # of visits 2.9 (4.9) 1.8 (3.7) 0.2 (1.3) 1.5 (3.6) 0.3 (1.6) 1.4 (3.5) 0.1 (0.7) 1.4 (3.3) 0.2 (1.2) 2.2 (4.0) 0.3 (1.5) 2.1 (4.3) 0.1 (0.9)
Use of Hospital Care
Mean (SD) # of planned admissions/100 ind. 4.2 (26.0) 2.0 (17.3) 0.3 (5.4) 1.5 (14.0) 0.3 (6.8) 1.4 (13.2) 0 (0) 1.8% (18.3) 0.2 (4.6) 2.6 (18.6) 0.4 (6.7) 2.8 (18.6) 0.1 (3.0)
Mean (SD) # of unplanned admissions/100 ind. 5.2 (28.4) 3.5 (21.1) 0.5 (8.1) 3.8 (21.8) 0.6 (7.9) 3.6 (21.5) 0.6 (7.8) 3.1 (19.8) 0.5 (8.4) 3.5 (21.1) 0.5 (7.5) 3.6 (24.1) 0.4 (8.8)
Mean (SD) hospital stay, days 6.7 (8.4) 4.7 (9.7) 6.0 (1.2) 4.4 (6.4) 8.5 (17.9) 5.0 (6.3) 4 (2.8) 4.6 (14.4) 4.6 (6.5) 4.5 (6.4) 6.5 (15.7) 6.1 (10.1) 6.7 (5.5)
Use of Emergency Care
No visits, % 81.83 81.95 96.93 83.06 96.06 84.48 96.64 82.8 96.92 79.2 96.64 85.16 98.63
Mean (SD) # of visits/10 ind. 2.8 (8.0) 2.8 (7.8) 0.4 (3.2) 2.8 (8.2) 0.5 (3.3) 2.4 (7.1) 0.4 (2.2) 2.7 (7.5) 0.4 (3.4) 3.3 (8.0) 0.5 (3.2) 2.2 (6.9) 0.2 (2.5)
High priority visits, % 51.2 39.6 44.5 36.7 46.6 37.2 27.3 37.5 41.8 42.2 50.3 46.0 33.3
Pharmacy expenditure
Zero expenditure, % 24.0 39.4 89.6 36.0 83.8 50.6 93.6 44.8 90.6 35.3 88.8 38.6 94.4
Mean (SD) expenditure, € 366.5 (763.4) 77.4 (302.4) 8.7 (90.1) 70.4 (314.3) 10.4 (70.0) 64.3 (248.2) 2.7 (16.0) 53.9 (225.8) 9.1 (115.2) 82.9 (279.9) 9.7 (73.8) 179.3 (543.0) 4.6 (34.9)
  1. Abbreviations: DM documented migrant, ind individuals, SD standard deviation, IM irregular migrant