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Table 4 Observed and reported sanitation behavior at baseline and endline, stratified by maternal education and wealth quintiles

From: Achieving equitable uptake of handwashing and sanitation by addressing both supply and demand-based constraints: findings from a randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh

Baseline characteristics Baseline Endline Difference in difference (DID) 95% CI Overall treatment effect 95% CI Impact of modifier on the treatment effect on outcomesb
Control
n (%)
Interventiona
n (%)
Control
n (%)
Interventiona
n (%)
Indicator 3: Observed visible feces on latrine slab or floor −21% −26, −16  
 Education of mother
  Uneducated 113 (56) 164 (52) 71 (35.2) 48 (14) −16% −28, −05    
  Some primary education 230 (53) 359 (56) 167 (38.5) 75 (11) −31% −39, −22    0.0001
  Above primary 339 (46) 496 (46) 235 (32.0) 151 (14) −18% −24, −11    
 Wealth index    
  Lowest quintile (Q1) 150 (56) 239 (58) 96 (35.4) 56 (13) −25% −35, −15    
  2ndquintile (Q2) 141 (51) 205 (54) 118 (42.8) 49 (12) −34% −44, −23    
  3rdquintile (Q3) 153 (59) 227 (55) 94 (36.6) 56 (13) −19% −30, −09    < 0.0001
  4thquintile (Q4) 123 (45) 221 (53) 97 (35.1) 57 (13) −30% −40, −20    
  Highest quintile (Q5) 115 (40) 127 (31) 68 (23.5) 56 (14) −01% −11, 08    
Indicator 4: Reported last child defecation in potty or toilet among under 3 children 49% 46, 52  
 Education of mother
  Uneducated 1 (0.49) 2 (0.6) 5 (2.4) 187 (56) 54% 48, 60    
  Some primary education 4 (1.0) 6 (1.0) 13 (2.9) 365 (55) 52% 48, 56    < 0.0001
  Above primary 15 (2.0) 13 (1.2) 92 (12) 627 (58) 46% 42, 50    
 Wealth index    
  Lowest quintile (Q1) 1 (0.4) 2 (0.5) 7 (2.5) 224 (52) 50% 44, 55    
  2ndquintile (Q2) 3 (1.0) 1 (0.2) 12 (4.3) 221 (55) 52% 46, 58    
  3rdquintile (Q3) 0 1 (0.2) 16 (6.1) 246 (58) 52% 46, 58    < 0.0001
  4thquintile (Q4) 6 (2.2) 9 (2.1) 17 (6.2) 255 (60) 54% 48, 60    
  Highest quintile (Q5) 10 (3.4) 8 (2.0) 58 (20) 233 (57) 39% 31, 46    
  1. aAll sanitation intervention arms (S, WSH and WSHN)
  2. b3-way interaction p-value (taking higher order)