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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants and households according to study arms

From: Achieving equitable uptake of handwashing and sanitation by addressing both supply and demand-based constraints: findings from a randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh

Characteristics n(%) or mean ± SD
Control Sanitation Handwashing W + S + Ha W + S + H + Nb
N = 1382 N = 696 N = 688 N = 703 N = 686
Maternal age 23.5 ± 5.0 23.7 ± 5.2 23.8 ± 5.4 24.3 ± 5.5 23.8 ± 5.5
Maternal education
 No education 206 (15) 115 (17) 101 (15) 100 (14) 116 (17)
 Up-to primary 440 (32) 218 (31) 221 (32) 223 (32) 225 (33)
 Above primary 736 (53) 363 (52) 366 (53) 380 (54) 345 (50)
Paternal education
 No education 406 (30) 209 (30) 221 (32) 221 (32) 203 (30)
 Up to Primary 412 (30) 204 (29) 211 (31) 198 (28) 228 (33)
 Above primary 560 (41) 282 (41) 255 (37) 281 (40) 254 (37)
Monthly household income (US$) 133 ± 2.8 131 ± 3.8 127 ± 3.6 140 ± 4.2 137 ± 4.1
People/household 4.7 ± .06 4.7 ± .08 4.7 ± .08 4.7 ± .08 4.7 ± .08
Children< 3 years /household 0.2 ± .01 0.2 ± .02 0.2 ± .02 0.2 ± .02 0.2 ± .02
Children< 3 years /compound 0.7 ± .02 0.6 ± .03 0.7 ± .03 0.7 ± .03 0.7 ± .03
Own home 1357 (98) 691 (99) 676 (98) 686 (98) 670 (98)
Own latrine 1321 (96) 664 (95) 656 (95) 670 (95) 662 (97)
Had a child potty 61 (4) 28 (4) 35 (5) 27 (4) 30 (4)
Hectares of owned agricultural land (mean ± SD) .427 ± .025 .407 ± .029 .411 ± .030 .420 ± .028 .459 ± .054
Household have own(%) n N = 1382 N = 696 N = 688 N = 703 N = 686
 Electricity 784 (57) 408 (59) 405 (59) 426 (61) 412 (60)
 Refrigerator 116 (8.4) 57 (8.2) 50 (7.3) 54 (7.7) 52 (7.6)
 Mobile phone 1188 (86) 591 (85) 582 (85) 600 (85) 593 (86)
 Television 416 (30) 225 (32) 210 (31) 187 (27) 203 (30)
 Motorcycle 100 (7.2) 47 (6.8) 35 (5.1) 53 (7.5) 32 (4.7)
  1. aW + S + H: in combination of water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention
  2. bW + S + H + N: in combination of water, sanitation hygiene and nutrition intervention