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Table 1 Sample characteristics by gender

From: Willingness to pay for private health insurance among workers with mandatory social health insurance in Mongolia

  Female (n = 799) Male (n = 858) P value
n % n %
Age (Mean, SD) 34.8 9.5 33.1 9.3 < 0.001
Willingness to participate in the first bid      0.677
 No 509 63.7 555 64.69  
 Yes 290 36.3 303 35.31  
Industry      < 0.001
 Mining and quarrying 30 3.75 47 5.48  
 Processing industries 198 24.78 223 25.99  
 Electricity 59 7.38 113 13.17  
 Construction 20 2.5 47 5.48  
 Wholesale and retail trade 164 20.53 140 16.32  
 Transportation 38 4.76 69 8.04  
 Information and communication 61 7.63 74 8.62  
 Finance and insurance 35 4.38 34 3.96  
 Public administration 77 9.64 55 6.41  
 Education services 61 7.63 28 3.26  
 Health care 56 7.01 28 3.26  
Total monthly family income      0.013
  < 500,000 81 10.14 78 9.09  
 500,000-1,000,000 280 35.04 371 43.24  
 1,000,000-2,500,000 358 44.81 323 37.65  
 2,500,000-4,500,000 64 8.01 69 8.04  
  > 4,500,000 16 2 17 1.98  
Satisfied with SHI      0.097
 No 553 69.21 561 65.38  
 Yes 246 30.79 297 34.62  
Education      < 0.001
 Primary / Secondary 160 20.03 261 30.42  
 College 67 8.39 95 11.07  
 University 458 57.32 427 49.77  
 Postgraduate 114 14.27 75 8.74  
Marital status      < 0.001
 Single 222 27.78 194 22.61  
 Married 487 60.95 608 70.86  
 Other 90 11.26 56 6.53  
Proportion of income spent on medical care      < 0.001
 none 261 32.67 424 49.42  
  < 5% 144 18.02 159 18.53  
 5–15% 195 24.41 143 16.67  
 15–25% 106 13.27 77 8.97  
  > 25% 93 11.64 55 6.41  
Self-rated health      < 0.001
 Very good 41 5.13 98 11.42  
 Good 394 49.31 468 54.55  
 Fair 340 42.55 262 30.54  
 Poor 21 2.63 26 3.03  
 Very poor 3 0.38 4 0.47  
Smoking status      < 0.001
 Nonsmoker (base) 656 82.1 305 35.55  
 Past smoker 48 6.01 88 10.26  
 Current smoker 95 11.89 465 54.2  
Adequate exercise      < 0.001
 No 565 70.71 453 52.8  
 Don’t know 106 13.27 127 14.8  
 Yes 128 16.02 278 32.4