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Table 3 ‘Habitus and distinction’ class theory: associations between SF-36 health outcomes at age 50 and measures of class theory. Parameter estimates and predicted means (LSMeans) from multiply imputed and weighted regression modelling

From: Theory driven analysis of social class and health outcomes using UK nationally representative longitudinal data

  Physical functioning Emotional well-being General health
Variable Estimate (SE) Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate
(SE)
Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate
(SE)
Mean
(95% CI)
Intercept 76.7 (4.2) 70.3 (3.4) 60.0 (4.0)
Gender
 Female −4.4 (0.5) 80 (75, 85) −3.2 (0.4) 71 (66, 76) 0.4 (0.5) 66 (61, 72)
 Male (ref) 85 (79, 90) (ref) 74 (69, 79) (ref) 66 (60, 71)
Cognitive Ability (Draw-A-Man Test score) 0.2 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.04)
Number of leisure time activities in childhood
 0 −1.2 (3.8) 83 (74, 91) −1.2 (2.4) 74 (67, 80) −2.2 (3.9) 65 (55, 75)
 1 −6.3 (4.9) 78 (67, 88) −9.4 (6.0) 65 (53, 78) −4.7 (4.9) 62 (52, 73)
 2 −2.1 (1.8) 82 (76, 88) −0.9 (1.6) 74 (69, 79) 1.7 (1.9) 69 (62, 75)
 3 − 0.8 (1.1) 83 (78, 89) − 0.9 (0.9) 74 (69, 78) − 0.8 (1.1) 66 (61, 72)
 4 −0.2 (0.7) 84 (79, 89) −1.2 (0.6) 74 (69, 78) − 0.1 (0.8) 67 (62, 72)
 5 or more (ref) 84 (79, 89) (ref) 75 (71, 79) (ref) 67 (62, 72)
Imagined occupation at age 25
 Higher managerial & professional 1.7 (1.2) 83 (77, 88) −0.7 (1.0) 71 (66, 75) −0.5 (1.2) 66 (60, 71)
 Lower managerial & professional 2.2 (0.9) 83 (78, 88) 0.8 (0.8) 72 (67, 77) 1.3 (0.9) 67 (62, 73)
 Intermediate occupations 1.5 (1.0) 83 (77, 88) 1.3 (0.9) 73 (68, 77) 0.7 (1.0) 67 (61, 72)
 Small employers & Own account workers −0.2 (4.0) 81 (72, 90) 2.9 (3.8) 74 (66, 83) −2.2 (4.1) 64 (54, 74)
 Lower supervisory & Technical 0.8 (1.0) 82 (77, 87) 2.2 (0.9) 74 (69, 78) 0.2 (1.1) 66 (61, 72)
 Semi-routine occupations 0.6 (1.0) 82 (76, 87) − 0.6 (0.9) 71 (66, 76) −0.4 (1.1) 66 (60, 71)
 Routine 3.5 (1.4) 85 (79, 90) 2.6 (1.1) 74 (69, 79) 1.1 (1.4) 67 (61, 73)
 Students/Not stated/Inadequately described/Not classified (ref) 81 (76, 86) (ref) 71 (67, 76) (ref) 66 (61, 72)
Aspiration after secondary school
 Don’t know −1.8 (0.9) 82 (76, 87) −0.8 (0.6) 72 (67, 77) −0.9 (0.8) 66 (60, 71)
 Full time studies −0.7 (0.8) 83 (77, 88) 0.1 (0.6) 73 (68, 78) 0.4 (0.8) 67 (61, 73)
 Job, nothing more −2.0 (0.8) 81 (76, 87) −1.0 (0.7) 72 (67, 77) −1.6 (0.8) 65 (59, 71)
 Part study, job (ref) 83 (78, 89) (ref) 73 (68, 78) (ref) 67 (61, 72)
Teachers’ rating: child’s poor speech
 Certainly −10.2 (4.7) 73 (64, 82) −3.9 (3.8) 67 (60, 75) −1.3 (4.4) 64 (55, 73)
 Don’t know 5.8 (8.2) 89 (73, 100a) 6.4 (7.0) 78 (64, 92) 1.4 (8.6) 67 (50, 84)
 Not at all 2.4 (1.1) 85 (82, 88) 2.2 (0.9) 73 (71, 76) 2.4 (1.1) 68 (65, 71)
 Somewhat (ref) 83 (79, 86) (ref) 71 (68, 74) (ref) 65 (62, 69)
Teachers’ ability rating: Maths & English
 Little ability/below average CSE grades 2–4/O-level/CSE 1 −3.9 (0.7) 80 (75, 86) −0.1 (0.7) 72 (68, 77) −2.5 (0.7) 65 (59, 70)
 A-level and higher (ref) 84 (79, 90) (ref) 73 (68, 77) (ref) 67 (62, 73)
TV watching
 1–2 times a week 7.1 (3.8) 84 (79, 89) 3.4 (2.4) 74 (69, 79) 7.8 (2.8) 68 (62, 73)
 2–3 times in last 4 weeks 6.5 (3.3) 83 (78, 89) 2.9 (2.8) 73 (68, 78) 7.6 (3.5) 68 (62, 74)
 3–4 times a week 7.2 (3.2) 84 (78, 89) 3.3 (2.5) 74 (69, 79) 7.7 (3.2) 68 (62, 73)
 5 times a week + 5.4 (3.0) 82 (77, 87) 1.8 (2.4) 72 (68, 77) 5.4 (2.8) 66 (60, 71)
 Not done in last 4 weeks 6.9 (3.1) 84 (77, 91) 0.8 (3.1) 71 (65, 77) 7.5 (3.0) 68 (61, 75)
 One in last 4 weeks (ref) 77 (69, 84) (ref) 70 (64, 77) (ref) 60 (52, 68)
Book readership
 1–2 times a week −0.1 (1.0) 83 (77, 88) 0.3 (0.9) 72 (68, 77) −1.5 (1.0) 66 (60, 72)
 2–3 times in last 4 weeks −0.6 (1.2) 82 (77, 88) 0.5 (1.0) 73 (68, 78) −1.5 (1.0) 66 (60, 72)
 3–4 times a week −0.2 (1.1) 83 (77, 88) 0.6 (0.8) 73 (68, 78) −1.6 (1.1) 66 (60, 71)
 5 times a week + −0.3 (1.1) 83 (78, 88) 0.5 (0.9) 73 (68, 77) −1.7 (1.2) 66 (60, 72)
 Not done in last 4 weeks −2.9 (0.9) 80 (75, 85) 0.1 (0.7) 72 (68, 77) −1.7 (0.9) 66 (60, 71)
 One in last 4 weeks (ref) 83 (78, 88) (ref) 72 (67, 77) (ref) 67 (62, 73)
Newspaper readership
 Tabloid (Daily papers-Express, Mail, Star, Evening, Mirror, Sun) 0.8 (0.9) 83 (78, 89) 1.0 (0.7) 73 (69, 78) 1.1 (0.9) 67 (62, 73)
 Broadsheet (Telegraph, Fin. Times, Guardian, Times) −0.9 (0.8) 82 (76, 87) −0.6 (0.6) 72 (67, 77) −1.4 (0.8) 65 (59, 70)
 Other (e.g. Newsline, Regional etc.) −1.2 (0.7) 81 (76, 87) −0.2 (0.6) 72 (67, 77) 0.0 (0.7) 66 (60, 72)
 None (ref) 83 (77, 88) (ref) 72 (68, 77) (ref) 66 (61, 72)
Voting behaviour (party voted for in last general elections)
 Conservative 2.0 (1.8) 83 (78, 88) −1.6 (1.5) 72 (67, 77) 0.3 (1.9) 67 (61, 72)
 Labour 0.5 (1.8) 82 (76, 87) −1.8 (1.5) 72 (67, 77) −1.1 (1.9) 65 (60, 71)
 Liberal 2.1 (1.9) 83 (78, 89) −1.1 (1.6) 73 (68, 78) −0.2 (1.9) 66 (61, 72)
 Other (Welsh Nat, Scots Nat, Nat front, Communist, WRP) 1.1 (1.7) 82 (77, 88) −2.6 (1.5) 71 (67, 76) −0.8 (1.8) 66 (60, 71)
 None (ref) 81 (75, 87) (ref) 74 (69, 79) (ref) 66 (60, 73)
Current voting intentions
 Conservative 2.3 (0.9) 84 (79, 90) 2.0 (0.7) 75 (70, 79) 2.2 (0.9) 68 (63, 74)
 Labour −0.1 (0.8) 82 (77, 87) −0.4 (0.6) 72 (67, 77) −0.5 (0.8) 66 (60, 71)
 Liberal 1.3 (1.1) 83 (78, 89) −0.5 (0.9) 72 (67, 77) 0.5 (1.1) 67 (61, 73)
 Social DP −1.3 (0.9) 81 (75, 86) 0.1 (0.8) 73 (68, 78) −1.0 (1.0) 65 (60, 71)
 Other −2.3 (1.7) 80 (74, 86) −2.5 (1.4) 70 (65, 76) −3.6 (1.7) 63 (56, 69)
 None/Spoil 2.2 (1.1) 84 (79, 90) −0.4 (0.9) 72 (67, 77) 1.6 (1.1) 68 (62, 74)
 Refused/Don’t Know (ref) 82 (77, 87) (ref) 73 (68, 78) (ref) 66 (61, 72)
Trades union membership
 Yes −0.1 (0.5) 82 (77, 88) −0.1 (0.4) 72 (68, 77) −0.4 (0.5) 66 (60, 71)
 No (ref) 82 (77, 87) (ref) 73 (68, 77) (ref) 66 (61, 72)
Religion (attendance at religious meetings)
 Less than monthly −0.8 (1.3) 82 (76, 87) 1.3 (1.0) 73 (68, 78) −0.2 (1.2) 66 (60, 72)
 Monthly or More 1.3 (1.7) 84 (78, 89) 1.1 (1.4) 73 (68, 78) 1.9 (1.7) 68 (62, 74)
 No religion −0.6 (1.0) 82 (76, 87) 0.2 (0.9) 72 (67, 77) −0.9 (1.0) 65 (60, 71)
 Rarely or Never 0.2 (1.0) 83 (77, 88) 0.2 (0.8) 72 (67, 77) −0.7 (1.0) 65 (60, 71)
 Weekly or More (ref) 82 (77, 88) (ref) 72 (67, 77) (ref) 66 (60, 72)
  1. aRounded-off to the maximum achievable score
  2. Nat National, WRP Workers Revolutionary Party, Social DP Social Democratic Party