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Table 1 Study Participant Demographics and Characteristic

From: A model of disparities: risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection

  Tested patients
(N = 34,503)
Tested Positive
(N = 2578)
Tested Negative
(31,925)
N % N % N %
Sociodemographic
Age
  < 18 1393 4.0 35 1.4 1358 4.3
 18–29 4494 13.0 268 10.4 4226 13.2
 30–39 5803 16.8 304 11.8 5499 17.2
 40–49 5468 15.8 411 15.9 5057 15.8
 50–59 5663 16.4 523 20.3 5140 16.1
 60–69 5467 15.8 467 18.1 5000 15.7
 70–79 3522 10.2 296 11.5 3226 10.1
 80+ 2693 7.8 274 10.6 2419 7.6
Gender
 Female 21,209 59.6 1352 52.4 19,219 60.2
 Male 13,924 40.4 1225 47.5 12,699 39.8
Education
 Education < 12 years 9565 27.7 826 32.0 8739 27.4
Employment
 Student 1148 3.3 51 2.0 1097 3.4
 Employed 16,570 48.0 1311 50.9 15,259 47.8
 Not Employed 5872 17.0 362 14.0 5510 17.3
 Retired 7284 21.1 637 24.7 6647 20.8
 Unknown 3629 10.5 217 8.4 3412 10.7
Race
 White 24,799 71.9 1437 55.7 23,362 73.2
 American Indian | Alaska Native 465 1.3 13 0.5 452 1.4
 Asian 1713 5.0 209 8.1 1504 4.7
 Black | African American 1649 4.8 159 6.2 1490 4.7
 Native Hawaiian | Pacific Islander 356 1.0 25 1.0 331 1.0
 Unknown 5521 16.0 735 28.5 4786 15.0
Ethnicity
 Other Ethnic Groups 30,938 89.7 1940 75.3 28,998 90.8
 Hispanic or Latino 3565 10.3 638 24.7 2927 9.2
Religious Affiliation
 Agnostic 10,938 31.7 661 25.6 10,277 32.2
 Christian 14,483 42.0 1219 47.3 13,264 41.5
 Other Religion 1181 3.4 103 4.0 1078 3.4
 Unknown 7901 22.9 595 23.1 7306 22.9
Relationship
 Single 12,940 37.5 790 30.6 12,150 38.1
 Divorced or Legally Separated 5248 15.2 383 14.9 4865 15.2
 Married or Significant Other 15,173 44.0 1305 50.6 13,868 43.4
 Unknown 1142 3.3 100 3.9 1042 3.3
Language
 English 32,277 93.5 2085 80.9 30,192 94.6
 Sino-Tibetan 286 0.8 55 2.1 231 0.7
 Spanish 1022 3.0 291 11.3 731 2.3
 Other Languages 918 2.7 147 5.7 771 2.4
Clinical
Body Mass Index
 Normal 7088 20.5 444 17.2 6644 20.8
 Underweight 554 1.6 30 1.2 524 1.6
 Moderately Obese 5667 16.4 452 17.5 5215 16.3
 Overweight 8009 23.2 670 26.0 7339 23.0
 Severely Obese 3080 8.9 243 9.4 2837 8.9
 Very Severely Obese 2835 8.2 208 8.1 2627 8.2
 Unknown 7270 21.1 531 20.6 6739 21.1
Number of Chronic Conditions
 0 11,893 34.5 1017 39.4 10,876 34.1
 1–2 12,185 35.3 924 35.8 11,261 35.3
 3–4 6563 19.0 406 15.7 6157 19.3
 5+ 3862 11.2 231 9.0 3631 11.4
Clinical Diagnosis
 Diagnosis of Diabetes 4942 14.3 456 17.7 4486 14.1
 Diagnosis of Kidney Disease 65 0.2 6 0.2 59 0.2
 Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS 141 0.4 13 0.5 128 0.4
 Diagnosis of Dementia 1039 3.0 135 5.2 904 2.8
Polypharmacy
 0 Prescriptions 8933 25.9 826 32.0 8107 25.4
 1–9 Prescriptions 18,066 52.4 1370 53.1 16,696 52.3
 10–19 Prescriptions 5307 15.4 298 11.6 5009 15.7
 20–29 Prescriptions 1549 4.5 61 2.4 1488 4.7
 30+ Prescriptions 648 1.9 23 0.9 625 2.0
Mental Health and Substance Use
 History of Illicit Drug Use 4375 12.7 137 5.3 4238 13.3
 History of Tobacco Use 5606 16.2 162 6.3 5444 17.1
 Diagnosis of Serious Persistent Mental Illness 4507 13.1 177 6.9 4330 13.6
 Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder 3605 10.4 112 4.3 3493 10.9
Primary Care Affiliation
 Internal Primary Care Provider 14,682 42.55 894 34.7 13,788 43.2
 External Primary Care Provider 12,456 36.1 1026 39.8 11,430 35.8
 Unknown Primary Care Provider 7365 21.35 658 25.5 6707 21.0
 Electronic Communication through the EMR 22,158 64.2 1337 51.9 20,821 65.2
Symptoms
 Fever 20,565 59.6 1995 77.4 18,570 58.2
 Cough 24,506 71.0 2062 80.0 22,444 70.3
 Breath 21,587 62.6 1857 72.0 19,730 61.8
 Chills 694 2.0 88 3.4 606 1.9
 Myalgia 955 2.8 145 5.6 810 2.5
Environmental
Region
 Oregon 10,486 30.4 454 17.6 10,032 31.4
 Alaska 1837 5.3 86 3.3 1751 5.5
 Puget Sound 6273 18.2 704 27.3 5569 17.4
 Southern California 3852 11 605 23.5 3247 10.2
 Washington | Montana 12,055 34.9 729 28.3 11,326 35.5
Age-Stratified Communal Living
 Non-Communal Living 24,581 71.2 1766 68.5 22,815 71.5
 Adult Community 1619 4.7 143 5.5 1476 4.6
 Adult and Youth 5294 15.3 400 15.5 4894 15.3
 Multigenerational 1970 5.7 177 6.9 1793 5.6
 Senior Living 489 1.4 58 2.2 431 1.4
 Other 550 1.6 34 1.3 516 1.6
 Financial Insecurity 9993 29.0 768 29.8 9225 28.9
 Housing Insecurity 6743 19.5 709 27.5 6034 18.9
 Transportation Insecurity 10,429 30.2 810 31.4 9619 30.1
 Low Air Quality 9664 28.0 754 29.2 8910 27.9