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Table 2 HIV prevalence and HIV related risk factors stratified by gender and race

From: HIV prevalence in South Africa through gender and racial lenses: results from the 2012 population-based national household survey

Variables Males Females
Black African Other racesa Black African Other racesa
n HIV % 95% CI p-value n HIV % 95% CI p-value n HIV % 95% CI p-value n HIV % 95% CI p-value
Total 5202 16.6 15.0–18.4   734 0.2 0.0–1.4   7348 24.1 22.4–26.0   873 0.5 0.1–1.7  
Age at sexual debut
 Younger than 15 393 14.3 10.2–19.7 0.096 26 5.1 0.7–29.8 0.489 229 26 18.3–35.6 0.801 11 0   0.034
 15+ years 3318 18.9 17.0–21.1   568 0 0.0–0.1   5498 27.2 24.9–29.5   746 0.6 0.2–2.0  
Sexual partners in the last 12 month
 1 partner 2575 20.3 18.0–22.9 0.214 474 0.3 0.0–2.0 0.867 3822 28 25.3–30.8 0.210 546 0.8 0.2–2.7 0.311
 2+ partner 663 16.9 12.9–21.8   23 0    211 34.5 25.3–45.0   17 0   
Age disparate partnerships
 5 years+ older 88 22.7 12.3–38.2 0.208 31 0.2 0.0–1.3 0.090 1694 29.4 25.6–33.5 0.001 165 1.6 0.3–7.4 0.035
 5 years + younger 1163 21.4 18.1–25.2   132 1 0.2–6.4   98 51.8 38.1–65.3   26 0.4 0.1–3.0  
 Within 5 years older or younger 1965 17.5 14.9–20.4   334 0    2239 26.3 23.4–29.4   373 0.3 0.0–2.3  
Condom use last sex act
 No 1806 16.2 13.6–19.1 0.002 411 0   0.002 2445 21.4 18.6–24.5 < 0.001 507 0.5 0.1–3.3 < 0.001
 Yes 1363 23.4 20.1–27.1   68 1.9 0.3–11.4   1523 39.1 34.9–43.5   49 2.9 0.7–11.3  
Alcohol use risk scoreb
 Abstainers 2894 16.2 13.4–19.3 0.610 214 0.9 0.1–5.4 0.040 6070 24.2 22.3–26.1 0.768 402 1.1 0.3–3.7 < 0.001
 Low risk drinkers (1–7) 1315 16 13.0–19.7   397 0 0.0–0.1   537 24.7 18.7–31.8   345 0 0.0–0.1  
 High risk drinkers (8–19) 353 21 14.6–29.3   31 0    88 19.6 10.5–33.6   7 0   
 Hazardous drinkers 20+) 22 14.8 4.0–41.9   0 0    3 0    1 0   
HIV risk perception
 No 1310 27.4 24.0–31.1 < 0.001 16 1.3 0.3–6.1 < 0.001 2275 39.1 35.5–42.8 < 0.001 14 8.4 1.3–39.7 < 0.001
 Yes 3810 12.1 10.1–14.5   701 0.2 0.0–1.6   4927 16.7 14.8–18.7   844 0.4 0.1–1.7  
Ever test for HIV
 No 2376 11.8 9.1–15.2 < 0.001 232 0   0.044 2127 11.6 9.5–14.2 < 0.001 353 0.7 0.1–4.5 0.005
 Yes 2767 20.3 18.0–22.7   488 0.3 0.1–2.1   5136 28.5 26.2–30.9   507 0.4 0.1–1.5  
Awareness of HIV status
 No 3259 16.4 14.1–19.1 0.846 533 0 0.0–0.1 0.165 3775 22.3 20.3–24.5 0.015 698 0.6 0.2–2.1 0.108
 Yes 1838 16.8 14.3–19.6   177 0.8 0.1–5.5   3388 26 23.5–28.7   161 0   
  1. aOther races include White, Coloured and Indians/Asians, bAlcohol risk score based on a questionnaire for Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)