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Table 4 Contributing factors of inequality in DTA in Ghana, between 2008 and 2014

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health care utilization in Ghana

Variables 2008 2014
Elasticity Concentration Index Absolute contribution Elasticity Concentration Index Absolute contribution
Place of residence (ref = Rural)
 Urban 0.080 0.464*** 0.100 0.002 0.408*** 0.002
    (0.009) (0.006) (0.011)
 Subtotal    0.100    0.002
Women’s Education (ref = No education)
 Primary 0.015 −0.033 −0.001 0.001 −0.165*** 0.000
(0.012) (0.025) (0.002) (0.005) (0.018) (0.002)
 Secondary 0.032 0.271*** 0.024 0.024** 0.234*** 0.017**
(0.020) (0.014) (0.015) (0.012) (0.011) (0.008)
 Higher 0.003** 0.803*** 0.006** 0.015** 0.739*** 0.033**
(0.001) (0.040) (0.003) (0.007) (0.024) (0.015)
 Subtotal    0.029    0.050
Wealth quintile (ref= poorest)
 Poorer 0.004 −0.026*** 0.000 0.016 −0.025*** −0.001
(0.022) (0.009) (0.002) (0.016) (0.006) (0.001)
 Middle 0.076*** −0.323*** − 0.067*** 0.003 −0.378*** −0.003
(0.013) (0.014) (0.012) (0.004) (0.011) (0.005)
 Richer 0.096*** 0.087*** 0.023*** 0.011* 0.025* 0.001
(0.015) (0.012) (0.005) (0.006) (0.015) (0.001)
 Richest 0.120*** 0.486*** 0.158*** 0.031*** 0.421**** 0.038***
(0.016) (0.012) (0.022) (0.007) (0.013) (0.009)
 Subtotal    0.114    0.035
NHIS covered (ref = No)
 Yes 0.086*** 0.847*** 0.198*** 0.050*** 0.809*** 0.119***
(0.012) (0.007) (0.028) (0.014) (0.007) (0.033)
 Subtotal    0.198    0.119
Age group of women (ref =15-19)
 20–24 −0.018 − 0.038 0.002 0.004 −0.083*** − 0.001
(0.018) (0.025) (0.002) (0.008) (0.021) (0.002)
 25–29 −0.024 0.046** −0.003 0.014 0.047*** 0.002
(0.024) (0.022) (0.004) (0.013) (0.017) (0.002)
 30–34 −0.006 0.124*** −0.002 0.010 0.092*** 0.003
(0.019) (0.031) (0.006) (0.013) (0.017) (0.004)
 35–39 −0.003 −0.013 0.000 0.011 0.048** 0.002
(0.014) (0.031) (0.002) (0.010) (0.020) (0.002)
 40–44 −0.002 −0.146*** 0.001 0.008 −0.109*** − 0.003
(0.008) (0.043) (0.003) (0.005) (0.036) (0.002)
 45–49 −0.006 − 0.312*** 0.005 0.002 −0.332*** −0.002
(0.005) (0.066) (0.004) (0.002) (0.060) (0.002)
 Subtotal    0.003    0.001
Region of residence (ref= western)
 Central −0.001 0.094*** 0.000 0.004 0.061*** 0.001
(0.008) (0.028) (0.002) (0.004) (0.021) (0.001)
 Greater Accra 0.005 0.650*** 0.008 −0.023*** 0.561*** −0.038***
(0.007) (0.018) (0.012) (0.007) (0.014) (0.011)
 Volta 0.001 −0.149*** − 0.004 − 0.010*** − 0.197*** 0.006***
(0.007) (0.029) (0.003) (0.003) (0.018) (0.002)
 Eastern 0.004 0.045* 0.001 −0.013*** −0.049*** 0.002**
(0.008) (0.023) (0.001) (0.003) (0.014) (0.001)
 Ashanti 0.010 0.146*** 0.013 0.000 0.254*** 0.000
(0.012) (0.019) (0.007) (0.007) (0.016) (0.005)
 Brong Ahafo 0.003 −0.107*** 0.004 0.001 −0.192*** 0.000
(0.008) (0.033) (0.005) (0.003) (0.018) (0.002)
 Northern −0.013 − 0.468*** − 0.001 −0.008* − 0.643*** 0.014*
(0.012) (0.024) (0.003) (0.004) (0.010) (0.008)
 Upper East −0.003 −0.533*** 0.017 0.007*** −0.666*** −0.014***
(0.004) (0.036) (0.016) (0.002) (0.014) (0.004)
 Upper West 0.004 −0.407*** 0.004 0.001 −0.528*** −0.002
(0.002) (0.029) (0.006) (0.001) (0.018) (0.002)
 Subtotal    0.042    −0.031
  1. Robust standard errors are in parenthesis. *** p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10