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Table 3 Contributing factors of inequality in at least for 4 ANC visits in Ghana, 2008–2014

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health care utilization in Ghana

Variables 2008 2014
Elasticity Concentration Index Absolute contribution Elasticity Concentration Index Absolute contribution
Place of residence (ref = Rural)
 Urban 0.010** 0.463*** 0.041** 0.002 0.408*** 0.002
(0.004) (0.464) (0.020) (0.008) (0.006) (0.010)
 Subtotal    0.041    0.002
Women’s Education (ref =No education)
 Primary −0.012 −0.033 −0.001 0.001 − 0.165*** 0.000
(0.010) (0.025) (0.002) (0.004) (0.018) (0.002)
 Secondary 0.018 0.271*** 0.015 0.021** 0.234*** 0.017**
(0.017) (0.014) (0.015) (0.010) (0.011) (0.008)
 Higher 0.002* 0.803*** 0.005* 0.013** 0.739*** 0.033**
(0.001) (0.040) (0.003) (0.006) (0.024) (0.015)
 Subtotal    0.021    0.050
Wealth quintile (ref= poorest)
 Poorer −0.017 − 0.026*** 0.001 0.014 −0.025*** −0.001
(0.021) (0.009) (0.002) (0.013) (0.006) (0.001)
 Middle 0.017 −0.323*** −0.017 0.003 −0.378 −0.003
(0.011) (0.014) (0.011) (0.004) (0.011) (0.005)
 Richer 0.017 0.087*** 0.005 0.010* 0.025* 0.001*
(0.011) (0.012) (0.003) (0.005) (0.015) (0.001)
 Richest 0.045*** 0.486*** 0.068*** 0.026*** 0.421*** 0.038***
(0.011) (0.012) (0.017) (0.006) (0.012) (0.009)
 Subtotal    0.057    0.035
NHIS covered (ref= No)
 Yes 0.030*** 0.847*** 0.080*** 0.042*** 0.809*** 0.119***
(0.010) (0.007) (0.026) (0.012) (0.007) (0.033)
 Subtotal    0.080    0.119
Age group of women (ref =15-19)
 20–24 −0.008 − 0.038 0.001 0.003 −0.083*** − 0.001
(0.018) (0.025) (0.003) (0.007) (0.021) (0.002)
 25–29 0.017 0.046*** 0.003 0.012 0.047*** 0.002
(0.021) (0.021) (0.004) (0.011) (0.017) (0.002)
 30–34 0.124 0.012*** 0.005 0.009 0.092*** 0.003
(0.017) (0.031) (0.007) (0.010) (0.017) (0.004)
 35–39 0.014 −0.013 −0.001 0.009 0.048** 0.002
(0.015) (0.030) (0.002) (0.008) (0.020) (0.002)
 40–44 0.009 −0.146*** − 0.004 0.007 −0.109*** − 0.003
(0.008) (0.043) (0.003) (0.004) (0.036) (0.002)
 45–49 0.001 −0.312*** −0.001 0.002 −0.332*** − 0.002
(0.004) (0.066) (0.004) (0.002) (0.060) (0.001)
 Subtotal    0.003    0.001
Region of residence (ref= western)
 Central 0.006 0.094*** 0.002 0.004 0.061*** 0.001
(0.006) (0.028) (0.002) (0.004) (0.021) (0.001)
 Greater Accra 0.011* 0.650*** 0.023* −0.019*** 0.561*** − 0.038***
(0.006) (0.018) (0.012) (0.006) (0.014) (0.011)
 Volta 0.005 −0.149*** −0.002 −0.008*** − 0.197*** 0.006***
(0.005) (0.029) (0.003) (0.002) (0.018) (0.002)
 Eastern −0.001 0.045* 0.000 −0.011*** −0.049*** 0.002**
(0.006) (0.023) (0.001) (0.002) (0.014) (0.001)
 Ashanti 0.012 0.146*** 0.011** 0.000 0.254*** 0.000
(0.009) (0.019) (0.005) (0.006) (0.016) (0.005)
 Brong Ahafo 0.007 −0.107*** 0.006 0.001 −0.192*** 0.000
(0.007) (0.033) (0.004) (0.003) (0.018) (0.002)
 Northern 0.013 −0.468*** −0.002 −0.007* −0.643*** 0.014*
(0.008) (0.024) (0.002) (0.003) (0.010) (0.008)
 Upper East 0.011*** −0.533*** −0.018 0.006*** −0.666*** −0.014***
(0.004) (0.036) (0.013) (0.002) (0.014) (0.004)
 Upper West 0.008*** −0.407*** −0.019*** 0.001 −0.528*** −0.002
(0.002) (0.028) (0.007) (0.001) (0.018) (0.002)
 Subtotal    0.001    −0.031
  1. Robust standard errors in parenthesis. *** p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10