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Table 3 Distress Financing by Selected Socio-demographic Characteristics in India, Bihar and Telangana, 2015–16

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure and distress financing on institutional delivery in India

  India Bihar Telangana
Variables Distress Financing
(%)
Did not pay
(%)
Distress Financing
(%)
Did not pay
(%)
Distress Financing
(%)
Did not pay
(%)
Place of Residence
 Urban 20.8 12.3 22.1 3.1 27.6 12.6
 Rural 27.0 13.6 35.9 4.0 42.5 10.7
Age
 15–24 26.0 13.6 33.3 4.0 36.7 11.1
 25–35 24.2 12.9 34.4 3.7 34.3 11.8
 35+ 28.8 12.9 42.4 5.7 16.4 30.5
Education Level
 Illiterate 31.8 14.1 39.8 4.0 44.8 10.0
 Primary 29.0 13.8 35.6 3.6 46.7 11.4
 Secondary 25.0 13.4 30.8 3.1 35.9 12.1
 Higher 17.3 11.7 19.9 4.8 26.5 12.0
Religion
 Hindu 24.9 13.3 33.5 3.9 36.3 11.3
 Muslim 26.5 11.8 38.3 3.7 25.4 14.1
 Other 21.1 14.4 65.9 0.0 37.2 11.3
Social Group
 Schedule caste 27.9 13.1 34.3 4.9 34.4 13.9
 Schedule tribe 24.5 20.0 42.1 4.7 49.0 6.7
 OBC 25.9 12.7 34.9 3.3 36.5 10.8
 General 21.1 11.6 29.8 4.5 24.8 14.3
Birth Order
 1 23.9 12.9 33.6 4.1 33.3 14.6
 2 24.2 13.1 32.0 3.5 35.4 9.7
 3 26.0 13.9 35.6 3.5 40.4 11.1
 4+ 29.0 13.1 36.1 4.3 29.8 12.5
Wealth Quintile
 Poorest 35.1 12.7 41.8 4.0 47.3 9.2
 Poorer 29.6 13.3 32.2 3.6 40.3 10.8
 Middle 26.2 13.7 25.2 4.3 43.2 10.1
 Richer 21.8 13.1 20.2 3.0 34.3 12.0
 Richest 13.1 12.8 10.7 3.3 21.4 13.9
Source of Delivery
 Public health facility 23.4 16.5 34.3 3.6 27.2 13.9
 Private health facility 27.8 7.0 33.8 4.5 39.0 10.5
Type of Delivery
 Normal delivery 23.1 14.5 33.8 3.9 26.7 12.1
 Caesarean delivery 30.9 8.8 37.5 3.4 39.8 11.4
JSY Beneficiary
 No 25.5 11.2 35.9 3.5 36.9 10.4
 Yes 24.2 15.6 33.0 3.3 23.6 16.6
Mean OOPE
 Less than 1000 12.5 na 25.7 na 11.5 na
 1000–5000 28.4 na 36.4 na 26.5 na
 5000–10,000 30.6 na 37.3 na 39.8 na
 10,000–15,000 31.5 na 43.9 na 47.8 na
 15,000–20,000 32.6 na 42.2 na 52.9 na
 More than 20,000 34.9 na 44.7 na 46.7 na