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Table 1 The presence of low back pain in participants by characteristic (n = 26,037)

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in low back pain among older people: the JAGES cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total Having low back pain P-value
N N (%)
Sex
 Male 12,088 6892 (61.0) <.01
 Female 13,949 8509 (65.5)
Age, years 74.02 (6.25) a   
 65–69 7220 4155 (60.5) <.01
 70–74 7796 4479 (61.3)
 75–79 5754 3439 (64.8)
 80–84 3519 2229 (69.0)
  ≥ 85 1748 1099 (69.8)
Educational attainment, years
 < 10 (junior high school; lower secondary education) 10,847 6602 (66.0) <.01
 10–12 (high school; upper secondary education) 9509 5597 (62.4)
 ≥ 13 (college or university degree) 5072 2866 (59.3)
Past occupation
 Professionals 3742 2179 (59.4) <.01
 White-collared workers 5305 3150 (60.4)
 Blue-collared workers 9627 6010 (64.3)
 Never worked before 1302 826 (65.5)
Equivalized household income, yen
 < 1 million 3119 2107 (70.3) <.01
 1 million–1.99 million 7735 4795 (63.7)
 2 million–2.99 million 4819 2839 (60.3)
 ≥ 3 million 4974 2863 (58.6)
Subjective economic situation
 Very difficult 1963 1378 (76.0) <.01
 Difficult 8853 5556 (67.2)
 Comfortable 12,247 6871 (59.8)
 Very comfortable 2286 1225 (56.5)
Wealth, yen
 < 1 million 2101 1428 (70.3) <.01
 1 million–4.99 million 2815 1800 (65.8)
 5 million–9.99 million 3255 1971 (62.0)
 10 million–49.99 million 7842 4693 (61.0)
 ≥ 50 million 2828 1586 (57.2)
Depression
 Non (GDS < 5) 15,592 8578 (58.2) <.01
 Mild (GDS of 5–9) 4178 2834 (71.9)
 Severe (GDS ≥ 10) 1485 1101 (79.6)
  1. a mean age (SD). Chi-squared test was performed
  2. 1 US dollar is approximately 100 yen and 1 EURO is approximately 130 yen