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Table 4 BPD medication expenditure coverage scenarios by income quintiles

From: Assessing the relationship between out-of-pocket spending on blood pressure and diabetes medication and household catastrophic health expenditure: evidence from Pakistan

  Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 All
CHE incidence (%)
 Status quo 6.64 (5.37, 7.90) 7.17 (5.93, 8.40) 7.68 (6.34, 9.03) 9.09 (7.85, 10.33) 7.66 (6.51, 8.82) 7.65 (7.01, 8.29)
 Scenario 1: 100% covered 5.69 (4.46, 6.93) 5.69 (4.56, 6.83) 5.82 (4.68, 6.96) 7.11 (5.97, 8.26) 5.73 (4.72, 6.74) 6.01 (5.43, 6.59)
 Scenario 2: 50% covered 6.00 (4.74, 7.26) 6.30 (5.16, 7.45) 6.83 (5.54, 8.13) 7.92 (6.72, 9.12) 6.35 (5.31, 7.38) 6.68 (6.07, 7.29)
 Scenario 3: 25% covered 6.40 (5.14, 7.66) 6.78 (5.63, 7.93) 7.19 (5.90, 8.49) 8.56 (7.33, 9.78) 7.17 (6.04, 8.31) 7.22 (6.61, 7.84)
No. of households incurring CHE (‘000)
 Status quo 345 (275, 415) 372 (304, 441) 399 (325, 473) 477 (406, 549) 394 (330, 458) 1988 (1805, 2171)
 Scenario 1: 100% covered 296 (229, 363) 296 (235, 357) 302 (240, 365) 374 (309, 438) 295 (241, 348) 1563 (1399, 1726)
 Scenario 2: 50% covered 312 (243, 381) 328 (266, 389) 355 (284, 426) 416 (348, 484) 326 (271, 381) 1736(1565, 1908)
 Scenario 3: 25% covered 333 (263, 402) 352 (289, 416) 374 (302, 445) 449 (380, 519) 369 (307, 431) 1877 (1700, 2054)
Percentage decrease from status quo (%)
 Scenario 1: 100% covered 14.21 20.55 24.25 21.73 25.26 21.41
 Scenario 2: 50% covered 9.58 12.07 11.09 12.90 17.21 12.66
 Scenario 3: 25% covered 3.59 5.41 6.37 5.86 6.40 5.59
Reimbursement costs (Rs. Billion)
 Scenario 1: 100% covered 2.37 (1.78, 2.96) 3.64 (3.08, 4.2) 6.32 (5.1, 7.53) 8.46 (7.3, 9.63) 13.9 (12, 15.8) 34.7 (31.8, 37.7)
 Scenario 2: 50% covered 1.19 (0.891, 1.48) 1.82 (1.54, 2.1) 3.16 (2.55, 3.77) 4.23 (3.65, 4.81) 6.97 (6.02, 7.92) 17.4 (15.9, 18.8)
 Scenario 3: 25% covered 0.593 (0.445, 0.74) 0.91 (0.77, 1.05) 1.58 (1.28, 1.88) 2.12 (1.83, 2.41) 3.48 (3.01, 3.96) 8.68 (7.95, 9.41)
  1. Note: 95% confidence interval in parentheses