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Table 2 Regression results of household CHE incidence by income quintiles

From: Assessing the relationship between out-of-pocket spending on blood pressure and diabetes medication and household catastrophic health expenditure: evidence from Pakistan

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
All Households
 HHs that spend on BP or Diabetes medication 0.059*** (0.031, 0.088) 0.050*** (0.027, 0.073) 0.076*** (0.051, 0.100) 0.063*** (0.044, 0.081) 0.056*** (0.041, 0.072)
 Observations 3490 4496 4812 5519 5921
 R-squared 0.045 0.026 0.037 0.033 0.032
 Province Fixed Effect Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Urban Households
 HHs that spend on BP or Diabetes medication 0.049*** (0.021, 0.077) 0.056*** (0.027, 0.085) 0.052*** (0.031, 0.073) 0.040*** (0.020, 0.061) 0.059*** (0.043, 0.075)
 Observations 3339 3301 3207 3248 3060
 R-squared 0.042 0.029 0.031 0.024 0.039
 Province Fixed Effect Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Rural Households
 HHs that spend on BP or Diabetes medication 0.050** (0.009, 0.091) 0.067*** (0.025, 0.109) 0.073*** (0.028, 0.118) 0.115*** (0.063, 0.166) 0.097*** (0.055, 0.139)
 Observations 1640 1771 1667 1535 1470
 R-squared 0.041 0.028 0.045 0.052 0.047
 Province Fixed Effect Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. Note: Households not consuming blood pressure or diabetes medication is the reference group. The coefficient of the ‘HHs that spend on BPD Medication’ denotes the adjusted difference in the incidence of CHE for respective sample groups (i.e. income quintiles). Other control variables (not reported here) include presence of children aged under 5, presence of elderly (age 65+), household size dummies, and household head’s education dummies. See Supplementary Appendix (Additional file 1) for coefficient estimates of the control variables. 95% confidence interval in parentheses. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1