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Table 1 Facilitators and barriers to implementation of sociodemographic data collection

From: Facilitators and barriers of sociodemographic data collection in Canadian health care settings: a multisite case study evaluation

Cases Themes
  Theme 1: Intervention characteristics
Relative advantage Adaptability
Case 1 The benefits of sociodemographic data collection were recognized and described by managers in all three cases (+) The process of implementation was adapted to each context (+) Only a subset of sociodemographic questions was perceived to be relevant (−)
Case 2 Not mentioned
Case 3 A single question about Indigenous identity was implemented (−)
  Theme 2: Outer setting
External policies and incentives
Case 1 Not mentioned
Case 2 Required by funders to collect sociodemographic information (+)
Case 3 Not mentioned
  Theme 3: Inner setting
Relative priority and perceived tension for change Readiness for change Availability of resources
Case 1 District review had already prioritized social determinants of health and was consistent with the focus on enhancing sociodemographic data collection (+) All managers described engaged leadership and support for implementation of sociodemographic data collection (+) Limited time for clinical tasks (−)
Case 2 Core service priorities were well aligned with implementation of sociodemographic data collection (+) Added time not perceived as value added for patients (−)
Limited staff and finances for implementation (−)
Case 3 Current approaches for targeting Indigenous individuals for cultural support were not optimal (+) Legacy IT system limited the number of questions and response options that could be added (−)
  Theme 4: Characteristics of individuals
Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the intervention
Case 1 Perception that some care providers were uncomfortable with sociodemographic data collection
Case 2 Staff had experience and were already collecting some sociodemographic data (+)
Case 3 Manager described staff discomfort with data collection (−) Staff perceived that patients would be uncomfortable with data collection (−)
  1. (+) = Facilitator to implementation (−) = Barrier to implementation
  2. Signs do not indicate magnitude