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Table 5 Significant results of individual studies

From: Effectiveness of programs to promote cardiovascular health of Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

Author year Study design Sample size n Model or test used Outcomes Significance p Effect size
Measure Result
Canuto et al., 2012
RCT [31]
n = 100
Exp: n = 51
Con: n = 49
Regression analysis; adjusted for all potential confounders
Repeated measures: baseline (T1); immediate post-program (T2); 3 months post-program (T3)
T1-T2 mean weight change (kg)
T1-T3 mean weight change (kg)
−1.65 (95% CI -3.27 - -0.03)
−2.50 (95% CI-4.46 - -0.54)
0.046
0.013
NR
T1-T2 mean BMI change (kg/m2)
T1-T3 mean BMI change (kg/m2)
−0.66 (95% CI -1.27 - -0.05)
−1.03 (95% CI -1.79 - -0.27)
0.035
0.009
NR
Peiris et al., 2015
RCT [32]
n = 38,725 (60 clusters)
Exp: n = 19,385 (30 clusters); HR cohort n = 5392
Con: n = 19,340 (30 clusters); HR cohort n = 4916
Repeated measures
Generalized estimating equations
Appropriate screening for CVD (%) Exp: 62.8
Con: 53.4
0.02 RR 1.25
(95% CI 1.04–1.50)
CVD risk screening small service (<  500) (%) Exp: 59.8
Con: 37.3
0.02 1.62
(95% CI 1.17–2.26)
HR cohort: antiplatelet medication prescription escalation (%) Exp: 17.9
Con: 2.7
<  0.001 RR 4.80
(95% CI 2.47–9.29)
HR cohort: lipid-lowering medication prescription escalation (%) Exp: 19.2
Con: 4.8
<  0.001 RR 3.22
(95% CI 1.77–5.88)
HR cohort: BP-lowering medication prescription escalation (%) Exp: 23.3
Con: 12.1
0.02 RR 1.89
(95% CI 1.08–3.28)
HR cohort: proportion obtaining guideline BP targets (%) Exp: 61.0
Con: 55.0
0.05 1.10
(95% CI 1.00–1.20)
Burgess et al., 2011 [38]
Quasi
n = 64 Repeated measures
t-test, McNemar’s test, ANOVA
Delivery of CVD preventive services (%) Baseline: 30
6-month post health check: 53
<  0.001 NR
Proportion of evidence-based CVD services delivered (%) Baseline: 29
6-month post health check: 57
<  0.001 NR
Prescription of all CVD related medication (%) Baseline: 28
6-month post health check: 89
<  0.001 NR
Prescription of anti-platelet medication (%) Baseline: 4.7
6-month post health check: 68.3
<  0.001 NR
Prescription of lipid-lowering medication (%) Baseline: 6.3
6-month post health check 65.1
<  0.001 NR
Prescription of ACEi/ARB medication (%) Baseline: 25.0
6-month post health check: 63.5
<  0.001 NR
Prescription of oral hypoglycaemic medication (%) Baseline: 17.2
6-month post health check: 33.3
0.04 NR
Number of cigarettes smoked per day (n = 41) At health check: 3.5
At health check review: 2.6
<  0.001 NR
Waist circumference (cm) (n = 56) At health check: 98.3
At health check review: 96.4
0.04 NR
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) (n = 58) At health check: 1.01
At health check review: 1.11
0.001 NR
Ratio of total to HDL (n = 58) At health check: 5.7
At health check review: 5.0
<  0.001 NR
Expected post health check 5-year CVD risk (%) (n = 58) At health check: 3.5
At health check review: 2.6
<  0.001 NR
Expected post health check 10-year CVD risk (%) (n = 58) At health check: 9.5
At health check review: 10.2
<  0.001 NR
Mean estimated absolute 10-year CVD risk (n = 58) Expected at health check review: 10.2
Observed at health check review: 8.2
0.004 NR
Burgess et al., 2015 [36]
Quasi
Population: 49 primary health care services (n = 12,428)
Sample: CVD risk assessment documented (n = 7266)
HR cohort (n = 2586)
Post intervention descriptive measures
No inferential statistical analyses
CVD risk assessment: proportion of population (%) Pre: 26.0 (n = NR)
Post: 58.5 (n = 12,428)
NR
HR cohort (n = 2586): BP assessment (%) Post: 93.3 (n = 2414) NR
HR cohort (n = 2586): medication prescription (%) Post: 66.8 (n = 1728) NR
HR cohort (n = 2414): achieved BP treatment targets (%) Post: 56.6 (n = 1366) NR
HR cohort (n = 2586): lipids assessment (%) Post: 96.5 (n = 2496) NR
HR cohort (n = 2586): lipid lowering medication prescription (%) Post: 54.8 (n = 1416) NR
HR cohort (n = 2496): achieved lipids treatment targets (%) Post: 39.6 (n = 989) NR
HR cohort (n = 2340): non-smoking status (%) Post: 50.0 (n = 1170) NR
Davey et al., 2014 [33]
Quasi
n = 72 Repeated measures
t-test
Weight change (kg) −0.8 (95% CI -.0.01 - -1.6) NS – value NR Cohen’s d = 0.04
BMI change (kg m−2) −0.3 (95% CI -0.01 - -0.06) NS – value NR Cohen’s d = 0.04
Waist circumference change (cm) −3.6 (95% CI -2.5 - -4.7) NS – value NR Cohen’s d = 0.22
Incremental Shuttle Walk Test change (m) 106.2 (95% CI 79.1–133.2) NS – value NR Cohen’s d = 0.11
6 Minute Walk Test change (m) 55.7 (95% CI 37.8–73.7) NS – value NR Cohen’s d = 0.11
Timed up and go test change (sec) −0.8 (95% CI -0.5 - -1.1) NS – value NR Cohen’s d = 0.11
Quality of life (SF 36) change General health 9.7 (95% CI 4.4–14.9) S – value NR NR
Bodily pain 7.4 (95% CI 0.5–14.4) S – value NR NR
Vitality 15.3 (95% CI 9.6–21.1) S – value NR NR
Social functioning 8.5 (95% CI 0.8–16.3) S – value NR NR
Role emotional 13.5 (95% CI 1.0–26.1) S – value NR NR
Mental health 14.2 (95% CI 8.6–19.9) S – value NR NR
Davidson et al., 2008 [34]
Quasi
n = 17 Repeated measures
t-tests
MANOVA
Knowledge score (range 1–25) Pre: 9.93 (SD 4.02)
Post: 17.43 (SD 3.32)
<  0.001 NR
Confidence in knowledge score Pre: 4.46 (SD 1.84)
Post: 8.08 (SD 1.60)
<  0.001 NR
Confidence in skills score Pre: 4.29 (SD 2.75)
Post: 8.16 (SD 1.84)
<  0.001 NR
Confidence in communication score Pre: 5.52 (SD 2.39)
Post: 8.34 (SD 1.69)
<  0.001 NR
Daws et al., 2014 [37]
Quasi
Pre: n = 68
Post: n = 13
Retrospective audit
Descriptive analysis. No inferential statistical analyses
Referral for cardiac rehabilitation (%) Pre (n = 68): 14.7 (n = 10)
Post (n = 15): 86.7 (n = 13)
NR
Attendance for cardiac rehabilitation (%) Pre (n = 10): 0
Post (n = 13): 61.5 (n = 8)
NR
Dimer et al., 2013 [35]
Quasi
Population n = 98
Sample n = 48
Repeated measures
t-test
BMI (kg m−2) Pre: 34.0 (SD 5.1)
Post: 33.3 (SD 5.2)
<  0.05 NR
Waist girth (cm) Pre: 112.9 (SD 13.6)
Post: 108.6 (SD 13.2)
<  0.01 NR
Sample subset (program completion) n = 28 Systolic BP (mm Hg) Pre: 135 (SD 20)
Post: 120 (SD 16)
<  0.01 NR
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) Pre: 78 (SD 12)
Post: 72 (SD 5)
<  0.05 NR
6 Minute Walk Test distance (m) Pre: 296 (SD 115)
Post: 345 (SD 135)
<  0.01 NR
  1. ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, Con control, CVD cardiovascular disease, Exp experiment, HDL high density lipoprotein, HR high risk, NR not reported, Quasi quasi-experimental study, RCT randomised controlled trial, RR relative risk, S significant, SD standard deviation