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Table 6 Implementation of the by-laws

From: Gendered norms of responsibility: reflections on accountability politics in maternal health care in Malawi

Rules Material and non-material sanctions reported
Antenatal care visits • Denial of care by health workers
• Financial penalty issued by health worker for coming late to ANC (beyond three months)
Male involvement in ANC • Chief refusing to write letter to excuse absence of husband
• Women coming without husbands treated after women who are with husbands
• Women who come alone sent back by health workers
• MoH and UNICEF introduced a new award that health facilities can win if they increase the number of male ANC attendants
Institutional childbirth • Payment in kind for home delivery (goat)
• Financial penalty for home delivery ranging from MKW 6000 to 20,000 (USD 10–35)
• Verbal insults to women who do not bring material, such as razors, soap and cloth, to the facility for their delivery