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Table 5 Adjusted logistic regression of education and self-reported unmet need for oral health services, adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India, 2007-2010a

From: Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India

  China (N = 1591)
Adjusted Model
Ghana (N = 425)
Adjusted Model
India (N = 1307)
Adjusted Model
OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value
Education University 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Secondary 1.59 (0.64–3.95) 0.321 3.86 (1.05–14.15) 0.042 4.29 (1.44–12.77) 0.009
Primary 1.70 (0.64–4.49) 0.281 3.44 (1.04–11.35) 0.042 4.44 (1.38–14.27) 0.013
No schooling 2.87 (1.04–7.89) 0.041 8.26 (2.81–24.31) p < 0.001 7.05 (2.14–23.19) 0.001
Sex Female 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Male 1.19 (0.91–1.56) 0.209 1.67 (0.79–3.51) 0.178 2.11 (1.27–3.50) 0.004
Age (years) 50–59 1.00   1.00   1.00  
60–69 1.22 (0.92–1.61) 0.171 1.67 (0.84–3.33) 0.141 1.39 (0.96–2.02) 0.083
70–79 1.53 (1.09–2.15) 0.015 0.69 (0.33–1.46) 0.330 2.40 (1.48–3.89) p < 0.001
  80+ 2.76 (1.50–5.07) 0.002 1.26 (0.41–3.92) 0.685 2.53 (1.20–5.30) 0.014
Residence Urban 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Rural 2.54 (1.82–3.56) p < 0.001 1.57 (0.85–2.90) 0.152 0.92 (0.53–1.59) 0.768
Marital status Married 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Divorce 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.597 1.20 (0.59–2.47) 0.608 1.02 (0.70–1.49) 0.908
Never married 1.18 (0.32–4.44) 0.800 0.08 (0.01–1.64) 0.099 4.78 (0.82–27.88) 0.082
Work status Current worker 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Non-current 1.31 (0.88–1.96) 0.179 1.11 (0.55–2.25) 0.767 1.49 (0.99–2.22) 0.053
Never worked 1.64 (0.92–2.90) 0.091 n/a n/a 1.69 (1.01–2.83) 0.047
Self-rated health Good 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Moderate 1.01 (0.75–1.33) 0.992 1.59 (0.82–3.08) 0.172 1.09 (0.63–1.89) 0.749
Bad 1.23 (0.92–1.64) 0.162 1.21 (0.55–2.65) 0.635 0.86 (0.47–1.57) 0.620
  1. aData source – WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), 2007–2010
  2. [OR (CI)] Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals
  3. Statistical significance set at p < 0.05 (logistic regression)
  4. [n/a] No result due to no observation in the “never worked” group
  5. All significant estimates are bolded