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Table 2 Description of characteristics (N, prevalence (%), and concentration index C) of VIP participants (N = 12,481) aged 40- and 50-years old in 2008–2010 by gender and income inequalities for each factor

From: Decomposition of gendered income-related inequalities in multiple biological cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged population

  Women Men
N % C N % C
BMI
 Obesity, severe and extreme obesity 1160 18.1 −0.185* 1221 20.4 −0.126*
Abdominal obesity
 Substantially increased risk 2571 40.1 −0.142* 1804 30.1 −0.117*
HDL levels
 Low HDL 1055 25.1 −0.148* 785 19.2 −0.083*
LDL levels
 Very high LDL 297 4.7 −0.141* 579 9.9 −0.027
Triglycerides (TG)
 High TG 880 13.7 −0.168* 2002 33.4 −0.085*
Cholesterol
 Hypercholesterolemia 518 8.1 −0.077* 848 14.1 −0.033
Hyperglycemia
 IGT/IFG/Diabetes 952 15.2 −0.088* 909 15.3 −0.166*
Blood pressure
 Hypertensive 662 10.3 −0.002 1086 18.1 −0.053*
Age
 40 yrs 3115 48.2 −0.107* 2939 48.8 −0.026*
 50 yrs 3344 51.8 0.110* 3083 51.2 0.024*
Year of participation
 2008 2205 34.1 −0.058* 2000 33.2 −0.040*
 2009 2069 32.0 −0.013* 1939 32.2 −0.023*
 2010 2185 33.8 0.070* 2083 34.6 0.063*
Total earned income
 Lowest quintile 127,974 kr 20.0 −1.000* 158,978 kr 20.0 −1.000*
 2 218,018 kr 20.0 −0.501* 276,985 kr 20.0 −0.499*
 3 258,629 kr 20.0 0.002 321,312 kr 20.0 −0.001
 4 296,587 kr 20.0 0.502* 374,109 kr 20.0 0.500*
 Highest quintile 409,312 kr 20.0 1.000* 531,111 kr 20.0 1.000*
Education level
 Compulsory education less than 9 yrs 60 0.9 −0.602 41 0.7 − 0.627*
 Compulsory education 9 yrs 298 4.6 −0.386* 447 7.4 −0.247*
 Secondary education up to 2 yrs 2163 33.6 −0.260* 2856 47.5 −0.158*
 Secondary education 3 yrs 967 15.0 −0.095* 656 10.9 −0.048*
 Post-secondary education less than 3 yrs 1156 17.9 0.115* 924 15.4 0.172*
 Post-secondary education 3 yrs. or more 1676 26.0 0.332* 930 15.5 0.215*
 Postgraduate 123 1.9 0.647* 155 2.6 0.567*
Occupation
 Managers 285 4.6 0.662* 515 9.0 0.455*
 Upper professionals 1243 20.2 0.458* 931 16.2 0.309*
 Middle non-manual 1284 20.9 0.150* 999 17.4 0.253*
 Lower non-manual 679 11.0 −0.161* 249 4.3 −0.189*
 Skilled manual 2292 37.3 −0.329* 2808 48.9 −0.345*
 Unskilled manual 366 6.0 −0.556* 243 4.2 −0.455*
Immigrant status 623 9.7 −0.216* 492 8.2 −0.227*
Civil status
 Unmarried 2038 31.6 −0.073* 2444 40.6 −0.176*
 Married 3587 55.5 0.049* 3004 49.9 0.193*
 Divorced 773 12.0 0.018 563 9.4 −0.082*
 Widowed 61 0.9 0.175* 11 0.2 0.428*
Children in the household 3759 58.2 −0.030* 3369 56.0 0.135*
Geographical area
 Coastal with hospital 4582 70.9 0.168* 4214 70.0 0.195*
 Coastal without hospital 852 13.2 −0.135* 785 13.0 −0.153*
 Inland with hospital 382 5.9 −0.038 337 5.6 −0.047
 Inland without hospital 620 9.6 −0.189* 656 10.9 −0.213*
 Other 23 0.4 −0.227* 30 0.5 −0.154
Physical activity
 Sedentary 1147 17.8 −0.130* 1616 26.8 −0.128*
 Moderate activity 3040 47.1 −0.070* 2638 43.8 −0.041*
 Physically active 2272 35.2 0.160* 1768 29.4 0.170*
Smoking
 Never smoked 3693 57.7 0.051* 3804 64.1 0.145*
 Former smokers 1873 29.3 0.008 1383 23.3 −0.066*
 Current smokers 837 13.1 −0.117* 747 12.6 −0.193*
Snus use
 Never used 4928 77.6 −0.008 3120 52.5 0.007
 Former users 648 10.2 0.045* 1194 20.1 0.040*
 Current users 774 12.2 −0.021 1632 27.5 −0.042*
Alcohol disorder test
 Not at risk 5569 93.2 −0.065* 4952 87.6 0.063*
 Probably risk alcohol consumption 386 6.5 0.065* 641 11.3 −0.037
 Probably alcohol dependence 22 0.4 0.038 61 1.1 −0.265*
Availability of social interaction
 Low 2024 31.3   1949 32.4  
 Extended 4435 68.7 0.201* 4073 67.6 0.135*
Availability of attachment
 Low 1671 25.9   2613 43.4  
 Strong 4788 74.1 0.106* 3409 56.6 0.042*
Job strain
 Low strain 1057 16.4 −0.013 1194 19.8 −0.022
 Passive 1476 22.9 −0.280* 1338 22.2 −0.222*
 Active 2159 33.4 0.290* 2206 36.6 0.251*
 High strain 1767 27.4 −0.068* 1284 21.3 −0.100*
  1. %: prevalence (column percentage) of each category within each sex. C: Concentration index. * indicates that C differs from 0; p < 0.05. BMI Body Mass Index, LDL Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, HDL High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, TG Triglycerides, IGT Impaired glucose tolerance, IFG Impaired fasting glucose