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Table 1 Outcome variable operationalization

From: Decomposition of gendered income-related inequalities in multiple biological cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged population

Risk indicator Lower risk (=0) Higher risk (=1) Reference
BMI (Body mass index) <  30 kg/m2 (Normal, underweight and overweight) ≥ 30 kg/m2 (Obesity, severe/extreme obesity) [51]
Abdominal obesity Waist circumference
Men: < 102 cm
Women: < 88 cm
(Normal or increased risk)
Waist circumference
Men: ≥ 102 cm
Women: ≥ 88 cm
(Substantially increased risk)
LDL levelsa (Low-density Lipoprotein cholesterol) ≤ 4.9 mmol/L (Desirable to high) > 4.9 mmol/L OR taking lipid treatment (Very High) [52]
HDL levels (High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol) Men: ≥1.0 mmol/L
Women:: ≥1.2 mmol/L
(Normal risk)
Men: < 1.0 mmol/L
Women: < 1.2 mmol/L
(Increased risk)
Triglycerides < 1.7 mmol/L (Normal risk) ≥1.7 mmol/L (Increased risk) [42]
Total cholesterola <  6.5 mmol/L (Ideal to high) ≥ 6.5 mmol/L OR taking lipid treatment (Very or extremely high) [42, 53]
Glucose regulation Fasting capillary plasma glucose ≤6.0 mmol/L and 2 h plasma glucose ≤8.8 mmol/L (Normal) Impaired fasting glucose (IFG): fasting capillary plasma glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/L
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 and 2 h plasma glucose 8.9–12.1 mmol/L
Diabetes: fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 or/and 2 h plasma glucose ≥12.2 mmol/L OR self-reported diabetes
Blood pressure <  140/90 mmHg (Optimal to Pre-hypertensive) ≥ 140/90 mmHg OR self-reported anti-hypertensive drug (Hypertensive) [55]
  1. aCutt-off points for dichotomization were stablished at “very/extremely high” to identify those at highest risk and due to high prevalence of high total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in the study population. The VIP programme applies cut-offs at lower levels for some variables and takes multiple risk factors into account to promote preventive activities at earlier stages