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Table 3 Comparison of the relative index of inequality for diabetes mellitus and its risk factors among males and females by different measures of socio economic statuses

From: Inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in Sri Lanka: a lower middle income country

Morbidity / risk factor Individual Household Area
Education (95%CI) Occupation (95%CI) Income (95%CI) Social status Index (95%CI) Unsatisfactory Basic Needs Index (95%CI)
Male
 Prevalence of diabetes mellitus 1.85 (0.97–3.52) 0.39 (0.19–0.81) 2.5 (1.24–5.01)* 1.24 (0.69–2.21) 1.79 (0.99–3.26)
 Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance 1.87 (0.99–3.5) 0.35 (0.16–0.76) 1.28 (0.62–2.65) 0.88 (0.47–1.64) 1.4 (0.77–2.57)
 High body mass index 2.25 (1.64–3.1)* 0.55 (0.39–0.78) 1.89 (1.30–2.74)* 1.56 (1.13–2.14)* 2.04 (1.46–2.85)*
 High waist circumference 3.31 (2–5.47)* 0.35 (0.22–0.57) 3.97 (2.20–7.17)* 1.9 (1.15–3.16)* 3.21 (1.91–5.39)*
 Family history of diabetes mellitus 1.88 (1.15–3.11)* 1.12 (0.52–2.39) 1.39 (0.75–2.58) 1.52 (0.96–2.4) 3.37 (1.93–5.88)*
 Insufficient physical activity 1.08 (0.70–1.67) 0.60 (0.36–1.01) 1.34 (0.84–2.12) 1.0 (0.67–1.5) 1.13 (0.76–1.69)
 Inadequate fruit intake 0.57 (0.46–0.70) 2.23 (1.4–3.56)* 0.61 (0.5–0.76) 0.68 (0.57–0.82) 0.62 (0.52–0.74)
 Inappropriate sugar intake 0.99 (0.67–1.47) 0.76 (0.43–1.36) 1.31 (0.85–2.03) 1.01 (0.69–1.48) 1.05 (0.74–1.48)
 Smokinga 0.65 (0.45–0.94) 2.63 (1.21–5.7)* 0.68 (0.47–0.98) 0.76 (0.55–1.04) 1.04 (0.76–1.41)
 Alcohol consumptiona 1.02 (0.81–1.27) 1.14 (0.8–1.64) 1.08 (0.86–1.35) 0.84 (0.7–1.02) 0.73 (0.62–0.87)
Female
 Prevalence of diabetes mellitus 2.3 (1.22–4.34)* 0.13 (0.04–0.41) 2.34 (1.24–4.43)* 2.37 (1.43–3.94)* 4.98 (2.71–9.15)*
 Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance 1.03 (0.53–1.97) 2.25 (0.23–22.5) 1.55 (0.82–2.92) 1.19 (0.72–1.95) 1.29 (0.77–2.16)
 High body mass index 1.9 (1.46–2.47)* 0.38 (0.23–0.61) 1.61 (1.19–2.17)* 2.05 (1.66–2.55)* 2.61 (2.01–3.38)*
 High waist circumference 2.04 (1.51–2.75)* 0.32 (0.19–0.54) 1.99 (1.42–2.79)* 2.02 (1.57–2.62)* 2.39 (1.79–3.19)*
 Family history of diabetes mellitus 1.85 (1–3.42) 0.13 (0.03–0.51) 1.71 (0.86–3.40) 2.09 (1.25–3.5)* 3.34 (1.73–6.46)*
 Insufficient physical activity 0.86 (0.53–1.4) 2.65 (0.53–13.18) 0.87 (0.53–1.43) 0.57 (0.38–0.85)* 0.69 (0.47–1.03)
 Inadequate fruit intake 0.78 (0.6–1.01) 1.72 (0.77–3.84) 0.72 (056–0.94) 0.67 (0.55–0.81) 0.71 (0.57–0.88)
 Inappropriate sugar intake 1.14 (0.75–1.72) 2.07 (0.61–7.05) 1.07 (0.7–1.62) 1.32 (0.94–1.86) 1.39 (0.98–1.96)
  1. *p < 0.05