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Table 1 Comparability of socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns by group before and after PSM

From: Equity in patient experiences of primary care in community health centers using primary care assessment tool: a comparison of rural-to-urban migrants and urban locals in Guangdong, China

  Before PSM (N = 1461) After PSM (N = 440)
  Locals N(%) Migrants N(%) X2 significance Locals N(%) Migrants N(%) X2 significance
Sample size 715 (48.9) 746 (51.1)   220 (50) 220 (50)  
Gender    0.158    0.436
 Male 263 (36.8) 311 (41.7)   102 (46.4) 94 (42.7)  
 Female 451 (63.1) 434 (58.2)   117 (53.2) 126 (57.3)  
Age (years)    P < 0.001**    0.063
  < 31 57 (8.0) 260 (34.9)   40 (18.2) 57 (25.9)  
 31–60 348 (48.7) 449 (60.2)   154 (70.0) 147 (66.8)  
  > 60 310 (43.3) 37 (5.0)   26 (11.8) 16 (7.3)  
Occupation    P < 0.001**    0.501
 Employed 223 (31.2) 173 (23.2)   165 (75) 171 (77.7)  
 Retired or unemployed 492 (68.8) 573 (76.8)   55 (25) 49 (22.3)  
Education    P < 0.001**    0.556
 Primary school or below 122 (17.1) 93 (12.5)   27 (12.3) 20 (9.1)  
 Middle/high school 392 (54.8) 515 (69.3)   118 (53.6) 123 (55.9)  
 Bachelor’s degree or above 197 (27.6) 135 (18.2)   75 (34.1) 77 (35.0)  
Income    0.333    0.917
  < 5000 215 (30.1) 244 (32.7)   63 (28.6) 60 (27.3)  
 5000–10,000 255 (35.7) 240 (32.2)   74 (33.6) 73 (33.2)  
  > 10,000 245 (34.3) 262 (35.1)   83 (37.7) 87 (39.5)  
Marital status    P < 0.001**    0.643
 Unmarried 34 (4.8) 88 (11.8)   22 (10) 25 (11.4)  
 Married 681 (95.2) 658 (88.2)   198 (90) 195 (88.6)  
Health status    P < 0.001**    0.679
 Fair or poor 586 (82) 536 (71.8)   155 (70.5) 151 (68.6)  
 Very good or good 129 (18) 210 (28.2)   65 (29.5) 69 (31.4)  
Chronic diseases    P < 0.001**    0.302
 No 282 (39.4) 552 (74)   147 (66.8) 157 (71.4)  
 Yes 433 (60.6) 194 (26)   73 (33.2) 63 (28.6)  
Number of CHC visits in the last year    P < 0.001**    0.093
  < 6 270 (37.8) 522 (70)   121 (55) 143 (65.0)  
 6–30 377 (52.7) 214 (28.7)   91 (41.4) 72 (32.7)  
  > 30 68 (9.5) 10 (1.3)   8 (3.6) 5 (2.3)  
Contracted with PCP    P < 0.001**    1.000
 Yes 96 (13.4) 35 (4.7)   19 (8.6) 17 (7.7)  
 No 619 (86.6) 711 (95.3)   201 (91.4) 203 (92.3)  
Social medical insurance    P < 0.001**    1.000
Basic medical insurance systems for urban workers 506 (70.8) 121 (16.2)   120 (54.5) 120 (54.5)  
Basic medical insurance systems for residents 190 (26.6) 334 (44.8)   82 (37.3) 82 (37.3)  
Without medical insurance 19 (2.6) 291 (39)   18 (8.2) 18 (8.2)  
  1. Note:1. N number of patients; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; PSM propensity score matching, PCP primary care physician
  2. 2. Differences were explored using the chi-square test between urban locals (with ‘hukou’) and rural-to-urban migrants (without ‘hukou’) who settled permanently or temporarily somewhere other than the original household registration location before and after propensity score matching