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Table 3 Discrimination by participant characteristics and health outcomes, General Social Survey 2012

From: Multiple forms of discrimination and relationships with health and wellbeing: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Aotearoa/New Zealand

  Total Racism only (R1) Racism plus one (R2) Racism 3+ (R3+) No R, one other (D1) No R, 2 others (D2) No R, 3 + (D3+) None
  n n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI)
Total (n) 8462 253 3.1 (2.6, 3.6) 82 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 113 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) 262 2.9 (2.4, 3.4) 69 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) 50 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) 7633 90.5 (89.5, 91.4)
Ethnicity
 Māori 1114 44 3.9 (2.5, 5.4) 27 2.1 (1.3, 3.0) 41 4.2 (2.6, 5.7) 44 4.0 (2.3, 5.7) 16 1.1 (0.4, 1.8) 6 0.3 (0.0, 0.7) 936 84.3 (81.5, 87.1)
 Pacific 421 24 4.2 (2.3, 6.1) 6 1.6 (0.0, 3.2) 17 3.1 (1.2, 5.1) 6 1.1 (0.2, 1.9) 4 0.4 (0.0, 0.9) 0 364 89.6 (86.4, 92.8)
 Asian 647 70 8.5 (6.3, 10.7) 22 3.1 (1.6, 4.7) 10 2.5 (0.3, 4.7) 13 1.5 (0.7, 2.4) 0 1 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) 531 84.3 (80.7, 87.8)
 European/Other 6348 118 2.0 (1.5, 2.4) 30 0.4 (0.2, 0.5) 52 0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 200 3.1 (2.4, 3.7) 49 0.7 (0.4, 0.9) 43 0.7 (0.4, 0.9) 5856 92.5 (91.7, 93.4)
Age group
 15–24 935 25 2.4 (1.3, 3.5) 14 1.5 (0.5, 2.4) 22 2.4 (0.7, 4.1) 39 3.7 (2.2, 5.1) 11 0.7 (0.2, 1.3) 9 0.6 (0.2, 1.0) 815 88.7 (85.6, 91.8)
 25–34 1217 41 3.9 (2.6, 5.2) 19 1.7 (0.9, 2.5) 22 1.5 (0.8, 2.3) 35 2.3 (1.4, 3.2) 14 0.9 (0.4, 1.5) 10 0.8 (0.2, 1.3) 1076 88.8 (86.8, 90.9)
 35–44 1467 58 3.9 (2.5, 5.3) 13 0.6 (0.2, 0.9) 32 2.1 (1.1, 3.1) 47 3.2 (2.0, 4.5) 9 0.4 (0.1, 0.7) 7 0.4 (0.1, 0.8) 1301 89.3 (87.1, 91.5)
 45–54 1519 68 4.5 (3.0, 5.9) 17 1.0 (0.4, 1.5) 20 1.4 (0.7, 2.1) 57 3.6 (2.2, 5.0) 15 0.8 (0.2, 1.3) 14 0.6 (0.2, 1.0) 1328 88.2 (86.0, 90.4)
 55–64 1379 35 2.0 (1.1, 2.9) 13 0.7 (0.2, 1.1) 12 0.7 (0.2, 1.2) 54 3.5 (2.4, 4.6) 16 0.9 (0.4, 1.5) 8 0.6 (0.0, 1.2) 1241 91.6 (89.7, 93.5)
 65–74 1074 19 2.2 (0.9, 3.5) 6 0.5 (0.0, 1.0) 4 0.3 (0.0, 0.7) 18 1.3 (0.6, 1.9) 4 0.2 (0.0, 0.4) 1 0.1 (0.0, 0.3) 1022 95.5 (93.7, 97.2)
 75+ 871 7 0.4 (0.1, 0.8) 0 1 0.3 (0.0, 0.8) 12 1.0 (0.3, 1.6) 0 1 0.2 (0.0, 0.6) 850 98.2 (97.2, 99.1)
Gender
 F 4749 125 2.4 (1.9, 2.9) 45 1.0 (0.6, 1.3) 79 1.7 (1.3, 2.1) 154 3.1 (2.5, 3.8) 44 0.8 (0.4, 1.1) 31 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) 4271 90.4 (89.2, 91.7)
 M 3713 128 3.7 (2.8, 4.7) 37 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 34 1.1 (0.6, 1.7) 108 2.7 (2.0, 3.4) 25 0.5 (0.2, 0.7) 19 0.5 (0.2, 0.7) 3362 90.5 (89.1, 92.0)
Education
 No secondary qualification 2041 49 2.5 (1.6, 3.4) 21 1.0 (0.5, 1.5) 20 1.1 (0.5, 1.8) 57 2.7 (1.7, 3.6) 11 0.6 (0.2, 1.1) 8 0.5 (0.1, 0.8) 1875 91.6 (89.9, 93.4)
 At least secondary qualification 6412 204 3.2 (2.7, 3.8) 61 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 93 1.5 (1.1, 1.9) 205 3.0 (2.4, 3.5) 58 0.6 (0.4, 0.9) 41 0.5 (0.3, 0.7) 5750 90.2 (89.1, 91.2)
NZ Dep Quintiles
 1 1418 27 2.4 (1.3, 3.5) 6 0.4 (0.1, 0.7) 10 0.8 (0.2, 1.5) 29 1.8 (1.0, 2.7) 5 0.4 (0.0, 0.7) 4 0.3 (0.0, 0.5) 1337 94.0 (92.5, 95.5)
 2 1494 31 2.3 (1.4, 3.3) 8 0.6 (0.0, 1.2) 16 1.0 (0.5, 1.6) 43 3.2 (1.8, 4.6) 10 0.5 (0.2, 0.9) 7 0.4 (0.0, 0.8) 1379 91.9 (89.9, 93.9)
 3 1534 40 3.0 (2.0, 4.0) 11 0.8 (0.3, 1.3) 23 1.5 (0.8, 2.2) 46 3.0 (1.8, 4.1) 16 0.8 (0.4, 1.1) 6 0.4 (0.1, 0.6) 1392 90.6 (89.0, 92.3)
 4 2094 76 3.8 (2.7, 4.9) 26 1.3 (0.7, 1.9) 29 2.1 (0.8, 3.3) 77 3.7 (2.5, 4.8) 17 0.7 (0.2, 1.2) 20 1.1 (0.5, 1.7) 1849 87.3 (85.0, 89.7)
 5 1922 79 4.0 (3.0, 5.1) 31 1.9 (1.0, 2.9) 35 1.8 (1.1, 2.5) 67 3.0 (2.0, 3.9) 21 0.9 (0.4, 1.4) 13 0.5 (0.2, 0.9) 1676 87.8 (86.0, 89.7)
Self-rated health
 Poor/fair 1344 56 3.9 (2.5, 5.3) 15 1.4 (0.5, 2.3) 36 2.9 (1.8, 4.1) 60 4.2 (2.9, 5.4) 24 1.6 (0.8, 2.4) 18 1.2 (0.4, 2.0) 1135 84.8 (82.5, 87.1)
 Excellent/very good/good 7112 197 2.9 (2.4, 3.5) 67 0.9 (0.6, 1.1) 77 1.2 (0.8, 1.6) 202 2.7 (2.2, 3.2) 45 0.5 (0.3, 0.7) 32 0.4 (0.3, 0.6) 6492 91.3 (90.4, 92.3)
Life satisfaction
 [Very] dissatisfied 599 34 5.2 (3.1, 7.2) 10 1.1 (0.1, 2.1) 21 4.1 (2.0, 6.2) 39 6.0 (3.5, 8.5) 12 2.1 (0.7, 3.5) 12 1.4 (0.5, 2.3) 471 80.1 (76.4, 83.8)
 [Very] satisfied/ No feeling either way 7856 219 2.9 (2.4, 3.5) 72 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 92 1.3 (0.9, 1.6) 223 2.7 (2.2, 3.2) 57 0.6 (0.4, 0.7) 38 0.5 (0.3, 0.6) 7155 91.1 (90.2, 92.1)
SF-12 Mental Health
 Mean (95% CI) 8405 47.3 (45.5, 49.0) 45.2 (42.5, 47.9) 41.8 (39.5, 44.1) 46.7 (45.0, 48.5) 41.5 (37.3, 45.7) 37.2 (32.3, 42.1) 50.7 (50.4, 51.0)
  1. Table notes: % are weighted, but numbers (n) are unweighted