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Table 8 Multiple regression model for OOP healthcare costs in middle-aged and elderly adults

From: Social health insurance, healthcare utilization, and costs in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults in China

Variables/categories Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Health insurance; ref.: Not covered by social health insurance
 UEMI 1.128*** 0.267     
 URMI    0.937*** 0.274   
 NCMI      0.882*** 0.173
Female, ref. male −0.556** 0.188 −0.713** 0.238 −0.304*** 0.075
Age in years; ref.:<=50
  > 50 and <=65 0.818** 0.263 0.578* 0.296 0.341*** 0.096
  > 65 0.935*** 0.293 0.632 0.364 0.252* 0.116
Educational level; ref.: Less than lower secondary education
 Upper secondary & vocational training 0.307 0.229 0.435 0.336 0.189 0.152
 Tertiary education 0.634 0.406 1.915 1.290 1.623 0.919
Marital status; ref.:
 Single/divorced/widowed       
 Married/cohabiting −0.011 0.261 0.190 0.315 0.075 0.106
Health status (self-reported); ref.: Excellent
 Very good 0.681 0.514 1.454* 0.601 1.711*** 0.236
 Good 1.109* 0.484 0.991* 0.477 2.100*** 0.222
 Fair 2.474*** 0.448 2.607*** 0.509 3.201*** 0.207
 Poor 4.143*** 0.480 4.521*** 0.542 4.951*** 0.217
Income level; ref.: Lowest quintile
 Second quintile 0.681 0.565 0.682 0.501 0.291** 0.110
 Third quintile 0.716 0.452 0.591 0.458 0.522*** 0.111
 Fourth quintile 1.059** 0.406 0.799* 0.417 0.440*** 0.120
 Highest quintile 0.646* 0.340 0.700* 0.389 0.354** 0.128
Live in Urban or Rural; ref.: urban −0.040 0.238 0.098 0.279 −0.271*** 0.085
  1. Estimates were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses
  2. Note: *** implies p-value < 0.001, ** indicates p-value < 0.01, * implies p-value < 0.05