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Table 4 Effect of P4P on service utilisation outcomes by population subgroups

From: Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania

Subgrouping variables Institutional deliveries Uptake of IPT2
Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value) Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value)
N Beta N Beta
Marital status       
 Married 3869 7.7a (p = 0.564) 3253 10.2a (p = 0.927)
 Unmarried 1878 9.1b 1504 9.1
Maternal age       
 Younger below the median age 2914 8.5a (p = 0.553) 2336 9.6b (p = 0.841)
 Older above the median age 2833 7.2b 2421 9.8b
Education       
 Some education 4611 8.9a (p = 0.378) 3877 9.3a (p = 0.780)
 No education/illiterate 1136 5.9 880 16.5c
Occupation       
 Farmer 2950 11.5a (p = 0.133) 2434 16.0a (p = 0.167)
 Non-farmer 2797 5.6b 2323 5.6
Religion       
 Muslim 4376 9.7a (p = 0.435) 3623 10.5a (p = 0.562)
 Non-Muslim 1371 3.9 1134 6.0
Parity/births       
 One birth 1886 9.7a (p = 0.517) 1510 9.3c (p = 0.882)
 Two or more births 3861 7.6a 3247 10.3a
Household size by members       
 Small size (< 5) 2996 5.1c (p = 0.173) 2476 7.7c (p = 0.964)
 Large size (≥5) 2751 10.4a 2281 9.9b
Health insurance       
 Insured 475 −7.6 (p = 0.001) 429 20.1c (p = 0.932)
 Uninsured 5272 9.7a 4328 10.4a
Household wealth subgroups       
 Tercile 1 (poorest) 1940 11.4b (p = 0.232) 1559 14.5b (p = 0.158)
 Tercile 2 (middle) 1916 10.2a (p = 0.094) 1576 16.2a (p = 0.149)
 Tercile 3 (least poor) 1891 3.7 Reference 1622 2.6 Reference
Place of residence       
 Rural district 4694 9.9a (p = 0.028) 3851 11.4a (p = 0.349)
 Urban district 1053 0.9 906 3.3
  1. Beta is the estimated P4P effect on a specific subgroup in percentage point after controlling for a year dummy, facility-fixed effects, and individual and household-level covariates (age, education, occupation, religion, marital status, parity, health insurance status, household size, and household wealth status); Each cell for Beta and differential effect reports the result from a separate regression; Differential effect test is a t-test of the null that the coefficient on the three-way interaction between the P4P effect and subgrouping indicator is zero; adenotes significance at 1%, bat 5%, and cat 10% level