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Table 2 Baseline individual woman and household characteristics by study arms

From: Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania

Characteristics Description/subgroup Intervention arm (n = 1376) Comparison arm (n = 1468) Difference
Panel A: Predisposing factors
 Marital status =1 for married woman (%) 69.9 64.2 5.7b
 Age Mean maternal age (15–49) years [SD] 26.5 [6.7] 26.3 [6.5] 0.2
 Age =1 for younger below median age (25 years) (%) 50.9 50.5 0.4
 Education =1 for primary education/above (%) 80.3 80.2 0.1
 Occupation =1 for farming activities (%) 46.0 54.5 –8.5b
 Religion =1 for Muslim woman (%) 86.5 66.6 19.9a
 Parity Mean number of births [SD] 2.7 [1.8] 2.6 [1.7] 0.1
 Parity =1 for one birth (%) 32.4 31.6 0.8
 Household size Mean number of household members [SD] 4.7 [1.8] 4.8 [1.8] −0.1
 Household size =1 for small/below the median size of 5 members (%) 51.1 50.5 0.6
Panel B: Enabling factors
 Health insurance status =1 for insured woman (%) 8.6 8.5 0.1
 Household wealth status Mean household wealth index [SD] −0.43 [2.7] 0.34 [3.3] −0.77b
 Wealth status –tercile 1 =1 for poorest household (%) 38.3 29.4 8.9b
 Wealth status –tercile 2 =1 for middle wealth household (%) 33.6 33.3 0.3
 Wealth status –tercile 3 =1 for least poor household (%) 28.1 37.3 −9.2b
 Place of residence =1 for rural district (%) 79.3 84.1 −4.8
  1. SD=Standard Deviation; Subgroups of predisposing factors include: marital status (married vs. none), maternal age (15–49) years (below vs. above the median age of 25), education (no education vs. primary level/above), occupation (farmer vs. non-farmer), religion (Muslim vs. non-Muslim), number of births/parity (parity 1 vs. parity 2/above), and household size (below vs. above the median size of 5 members); Subgroups of enabling factors include: health insurance status (any insurance vs. none), place of residence (rural vs. urban district), and household wealth status subgroups (wealth terciles); adenotes significance at 1%, bat 5%, and cat 10% level