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Table 6 Summary of key findings under delivery arrangement level of health system

From: Barriers and facilitators to implementation, uptake and sustainability of community-based health insurance schemes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Systems-level factors: Delivery arrangement Number and type of studies a Reported as barriers Reported as facilitators Related to b
Implementation Uptake Sustainability
Human resource planning and management
 Human resource planning N = 5
Qualitative (2); Mixed (2); Case studies (1)
N = 4
[46, 52, 63, 79]
N = 2
[52, 77]
X X X
 Human resource management N = 7
Qualitative (3); Cross-sectional (1); Mixed (2); Case studies (1)
N = 5
[45, 46, 52, 74, 78]
N = 2
[48, 62]
X X  
Health facility-related factor
 Facility environment N = 6
Qualitative (3); Cross-sectional (1); Mixed (2)
N = 4
[52, 54, 56, 74]
N = 2
[63, 77]
  X X
 Supplies and materials N = 11
Qualitative (4); Cross-sectional (2); Mixed (5)
N = 11
[42, 45, 46, 52, 54, 56, 62, 63, 74, 75, 78]
X X  
 Patient waiting time N = 3
Qualitative (1); Mixed (2)
N = 3
[45, 52, 56]
  X X
 Interpersonal skills N = 7
Qualitative (3); Cross-sectional (2); Mixed (2)
N = 7
[45, 46, 52, 56, 61, 65, 74]
  X X
Accessibility of health facility
 Distance to facility N = 17
Qualitative (9); Cross-sectional (2); Mixed (4); Case studies (2)
N = 11
[4, 31, 33, 38, 45, 46, 52, 53, 57, 77, 79]
N = 7
[32, 33, 35, 52, 58, 65, 66]
  X  
 Choice of facility N = 3
Qualitative (3)
N = 2
[46, 76]
N = 1
[57]
  X X
 Referral systems N = 5
Qualitative (1); Cross-sectional (2); Case studies (2)
N = 3
[31, 36, 46]
N = 2
[48, 59]
  X X
Marketing and promotion strategies
 Adequacy of campaigns N = 11
Qualitative (2); Cross-sectional (5); Mixed (3); Case study (1)
N = 8
[41, 43, 44, 54, 56, 58, 75, 77]
N = 3
[48, 57, 62]
X X X
 Marketing technique N = 4
Qualitative (1); Cross-sectional (1); Mixed (1); case study (1)
N = 2
[57, 79]
N = 2
[33, 43]
  X  
  1. a Some of the studies included both barriers and facilitators
  2. b X symbol denotes whether the factor relates to implementation, uptake or sustainability