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Table 5 Multivariate multilevel logistic mixed model regression estimates (odds ratios) of determinants of binary health indicators

From: Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010

  Stunting odds ratios (95% CI) Underweight odds ratios (95% CI)
2000 2005 2010 2000 2005 2010
Sex Malea    
Female 0.87 (0.77-0.98)* 0.95 (0.80-1.13) 0.97 (0.79-1.19)
Age 0-11 monthsa
12-23 months 2.83 (2.29-3.51)*** 2.94 (2.20-3.94)*** 5.03 (3.47-7.29)*** 1.90 (1.48-2.45)*** 1.58 (1.02-2.46)* 1.66 (1.07-2.58)*
24-35 months 1.55 (1.24-1.93)*** 1.77 (1.31-2.40)*** 2.88 (1.95-4.23)*** 1.65 (1.27-2.13)*** 2.07 (1.36-3.160** 1.36 (0.86-2.15)
36-47 months 1.90 (1.52-2.37)*** 2.33 (1.73-3.15)*** 2.69 (1.80-4.01)*** 1.60 (1.22-2.080** 1.63 (1.04-2.54)* 1.19 (0.73-1.94)
48-59 months 2.06 (1.65-2.56)*** 2.25 (1.66-3.05)*** 2.79 (1.86-4.19)*** 1.68 (1.30-2.18)*** 1.59 (1.02-2.49)* 1.17 (0.71-1.94)
Number of children under age 5 in the home 1a
2 1.47 (1.29-1.69)*** 1.30 (1.06-1.58)* 1.24 (1.01-1.57)* 1.26 (1.15-1.62)*** 1.05 (0.79-1.41) 1.13 (0.83-1.53)
3 1.99 (1.50-2.65)*** 1.84 (1.14-2.96)* 1.55 (0.86-2.82) 1.69 (1.19-2.39)** 1.15 (0.57-2.31) 1.43 (0.67-3.07)
Maternal Education level Nonea
Primary 0.73 (0.46-1.16) 0.62 (0.39-0.98)* 0.72 (0.46-1.13) 0.92 (0.52-1.63) 0.66 (0.36-1.21) 0.74 (0.41-1.35)
Secondary 0.59 (0.37-0.94)* 0.60 (0.41-0.89)* 0.71 (0.49-1.04) 0.69 (0.39-1.22) 0.62 (0.38-1.04) 0.59 (0.36-0.98)*
Vocational 0.53 (0.32-0.88)* 0.43 (0.25-0.72)** 0.47 (0.26-0.85)* 0.89 (0.49-1.64) 0.41 (0.19-0.87)* 0.53 (0.24-1.15)
University 0.45 (0.28-0.73)** 0.45 (0.28-0.71)** 0.55 (0.35-0.87)* 0.57 (0.31-1.04) 0.44 (0.24-0.83)* 0.49 (0.27-0.92)*
Household economic status Pooresta
Second 0.98 (0.81-1.18) 0.90 (0.68-1.19) 0.70 (0.48-1.00) 0.94 (0.74-1.19) 1.13 (0.76-1.67) 0.65 (0.31-1.40)
Middle 1.03 (0.82-1.29) 0.64 (0.44-0.92)* 0.48 (0.31-0.75)** 0.82 (0.61-1.10) 0.84 (0.50-1.43) 0.69 (0.35-1.34)
Fourth 0.90 (0.69-1.16) 0.49 (0.32-0.75)** 0.47 (0.29-0.76)** 0.95 (0.69-1.32) 0.80 (0.43-1.47) 0.79 (0.44-1.43)
Richest 0.91 (0.49-1.66) 0.48 (0.30-0.77)** 0.24 (0.13-0.45)*** 0.78 (0.36-1.67) 0.75 (0.39-1.45) 0.81(0.49-1.34)
Water source Poora    
Improved 0.99 (0.81-1.20) 1.23 (0.97-1.55) 1.0 (0.78-1.27)
Sanitation facility Poora    
Improved 0.57 (0.33-0.97)* 1.04 (0.80-1.35) 1.06 (0.76-1.47)
Place of Residence Urbana
Rural 0.96 (0.76-1.22) 0.89 (0.64-1.26) 0.84 (0.61-1.16) 0.93 (0.68-1.28) 0.80 (0.53-1.22) 1.05 (0.70-1.59)
Region of Residence Ulaanbaatara
West 1.59 (1.19-2.13)** 1.07 (0.73-1.58) 1.39 (0.91-2.15) 2.55 (1.67-3.91)*** 1.05 (0.66-1.67) 1.14 (0.66-1.98)
Khangai 1.75 (1.31-2.32)*** 0.73 (0.50-1.08) 0.94 (0.60-1.46) 1.31 (−.90-1.90) 1.10 (0.70-1.71) 0.99 (0.57-1.73)
Central 1.28 (0.98-1.67) 0.66 (0.44-0.98)* 0.91 (0.58-1.42) 1.78 (1.20-2.63)** 0.87 (0.54-1.40) 0.93 (0.53-1.64)
East 1.48 (1.07-2.04)* 1.23 (0.79-1.91) 0.94 (0.59-1.47) 1.76 (1.19-2.61)** 1.00 (0.59-1.69) 0.64 (0.46-1.51)
Log-Likelihood −13,690.34 −8410.07 −18,777.09 −14,821.67 −9651.77 −20,591.32
Classification: % correct 76.9 80.5 87.1 86.9 93.8 96.0
Number of children 5927 336 3713 5927 3363 3716
   Immunisation odds ratios (95% CI) 2010  
2000 2005
Sex Malea
Female
Age 0-11 monthsa    
12-23 months 2.29 (1.78-2.95)*** 0.78 (0.57-1.07) 0.86 (0.53-1.42)
24-35 months 2.87 (2.21-3.73)*** 0.52 (0.38-0.71)*** 0.98 (0.60-1.60)
36-47 months 2.78 (2.13-3.64)*** 0.41 (0.30-0.56)*** 1.13 (0.67-1.85)
48-59 months 2.36 (1.82-3.06)*** 0.25 (0.18-0.33)*** 1.22 (0.74-2.01)
Number of children under age 5 in the home 1a
2
3
Maternal Education level Nonea
Primary 1.18 (0.64-2.18) 0.72 (0.41-1.27) 1.05 (0.46-2.39)
Secondary 1.14 (0.61-2.11) 0.87 (0.53-1.44) 1.15 (0.58-2.32)
Vocational 1.24 (0.64-2.40) 0.83 (0.45-1.53) 0.89 (0.34-2.34)
University 1.55 (0.81-2.95) 0.86 (0.50-1.50) 1.18 (0.54-2.58)
Household economic status Pooresta
Second 1.02 (0.78-1.34) 1.12 (0.80-1.57) 0.92 (0.57-1.47)
Middle 1.31 (0.92-2.21) 1.39 (0.91-2.12) 0.87 (0.50-1.51)
Fourth 1.50 (1.03-2.20)* 1.47 (0.91-2.36) 0.77 (0.41-1.45)
Richest 1.46 (0.89-2.40) 1.48 (0.91-1.93) 0.69 (0.33-1.45)
Water source Poora
Improved 1.44 (1.08-1.90)* 1.25 (0.94-1.65) 1.18 (0.82-1.68)
Sanitation facility Poora
Improved
Place of Residence Urbana
Rural 3.16 (1.71-5.82)*** 1.68 (0.95-2.97) 0.96 (0.62-1.48)
Region of Residence Ulaanbaatara    
West 0.37 (0.16-0.82)* 0.61 (0.30-1.22) 1.07 (0.59-1.95)
Khangai 0.32 (0.15-0.71)** 1.09 (0.57-2.07) 1.54 (0.87-2.74)
Central 0.24 (0.12-0.50)*** 2.64 (1.33-5.25)** 1.14 (0.63-2.07)
East 0.08 (0.03-0.20)*** 1.57 (0.68-3.61) 0.94 (0.50-1.77)
Log-Likelihood −15,972.66 −8606.55 −22,040.53
Classification: % correct 88.0 84.4 97.8%
Number of children 6184 3547 3953
  1. Statistical significance of effect on outcome in multivariate analysis: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. The model was adjusted for the cluster effect
  2. †represents missing odds ratios are for variables not significant in bivariate analysis so not included in the multivariate model. Prevalence values for each outcome can be found in Table 4
  3. adenotes the reference category