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Table 2 Multi-level logistic regression model with random effects at NUTS-2 regions level according to individual variables for poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 3)

From: Socio-economic factors linked with mental health during the recession: a multilevel analysis

Independent variable Men Women
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Year
 2006 1 - - 1 - -
 2012 1.03 (0.99 - 1.09) 0.202 1.01 (0.97 - 1.11) 0.500
Age group
 16-29 1 - - 1 - -
 30-44 1.01 (0.91 - 1.11) 0.893 1.01 (0.91 - 1.21) 0.893
 45-59 0.82 (0.74 - 0.92) 0.071 1.11 (0.74 - 0.92) 0.061
  > =60 0.60 (0.54 - 0.7) 0.099 0.61 (0.54 - 0.7) 0.062
Marital status
 Single 1 - - 1 - -
 Married 0.97 (0.91 - 0.98) 0.042 1.02 (0.91 - 1.04) 0.459
 Widowed 1.45 (1.27 - 1.55) <0.001 1.40 (1.24 - 1.57) <0.001
 Separated or Divorced 1.54 (1.33 - 1.78) <0.001 1.61 (1.43 - 1.71) <0.001
Nationality
 Spanish 1 - - 1 - -
 Foreign 1.07 (0.96 - 1.18) 0.210 1.11 (0.90 - 1.19) 0.265
Employment situation
 Working 1 - - 1 - -
 Unemployed 1.81 (1.67 - 1.98) <0.001 1.33 (1.17 - 1.98) <0.001
 Retired 1.23 (1.12 - 1.35) <0.001 1.63 (1.60 - 1.75) <0.001
 Studying 1.23 (1.06 - 1.43) 0.070 1.23 (1.16 - 1.43) 0.007
 Housekeeping 1.02 (1.14 - 1.35) 0.444 1.84 (1.14 - 1.95) <0.001
Level of education
 High 1 - - 1 - -
 Medium 1.36 (1.07 - 1.74) 0.012 1.32 (1.02 - 1.47) 0.012
 Low 1.14 (0.88 - 1.46) 0.330 1.14 (0.76 - 1.29) 0.330
Socio-professional class
 Executives and managers 1 - - 1 - -
 Intermediate occupations, skilled technical, self-employed 1.09 (0.98 - 1.01) 0.050 1.09 (0.98 - 1.01) 0.050
 Primary sector skilled workers 1.02 (0.92 - 1.18) 0.385 1.05 (0.94 - 1.37) 0.385
 Unskilled workers 1.08 (0.96 - 1.21) 0.200 1.08 (0.96 - 1.21) 0.200
Social support (for 1 point increase) 0.95 (0.93 - 0.98) <0.001 0.93 (0.92 - 0.97) <0.001