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Table 1 Estimates of health production functions for men and women in Polish regions (1999–2013)

From: Gender bias and sex-based differences in health care efficiency in Polish regions

  Dependent variable: life expectancy at ages 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 65
  Females Males
Independent variables F_0 F_15 F_30 F_45 F_60 F_65 M_0 M_15 M_30 M_45 M_60 M_65
Constant 3.6366c (0.0719) 3.3800c (0.0746) 2.9284c (0.0946) 2.3200c (0.1263) 1.5536c (0.1918) 1.1596c (0.2368) 3.1964c (0.0896) 2.8291c (0.1084) 2.1739c (0.1398) 1.4776c (0.1740) −0.0226 (0.2616) −0.7311b (0.3104)
Doctor density 0.0034 (0.0029) 0.0065b (0.0030) 0.0064a (0.0039) 0.0117b (0.0052) 0.0212c (0.0077) 0.0249c (0.0095) 0.0066 (0.0041) 0.0121b (0.0049) 0.0105 (0.0064) 0.0175b (0.0082) 0.0254b (0.0108) 0.0345b (0.0128)
Education 0.0113c (0.0019) 0.0114c (0.0025) 0.0151c (0.0025) 0.0218c (0.0034) 0.0406c (0.0051) 0.0566c (0.0063) 0.0071b (0.0029) 0.0071b (0.0035) 0.0092b (0.0046) 0.0177c (0.0059) 0.0351c (0.0078) 0.0411c (0.0092)
Income 0.0103c (0.0038) 0.0134c (0.0039) 0.0164c (0.0050) 0.0176c (0.0066) 0.0072 (0.0100) 0.0094 (0.0122) 0.0446c (0.0051) 0.0531c (0.0061) 0.0645c (0.0080) 0.0778c (0.0101) 0.0287b (0.0138) 0.0227 (0.0164)
Services employment 0.0120b (0.0052) 0.0129b (0.0030) 0.0157b (0.0070) 0.0186b (0.0093) 0.0228 (0.0140) 0.0228 (0.0171) 0.0105a (0.0062) 0.0121 (0.0074) 0.0196b (0.0098) 0.0162 (0.0125) 0.0011 (0.0165) 0.0073 (0.0194)
Housing conditions 0.1560c (0.0198) 0.1637c (0.0206) 0.2038c (0.0261) 0.2620c (0.0348) 0.3390c (0.0529) 0.3776c (0.0653) 0.1881c (0.0249) 0.2078c (0.0302) 0.2766c (0.0388) 0.3259c (0.0483) 0.6222c (0.1428) 0.7427c (0.0869)
Pollution −0.0013 (0.0008) −0.0017b (0.0008) −0.0023b (0.0011) −0.0028a (0.0014) −0.0043a (0.0022) −0.0057b (0.0027) −0.0020a (0.0011) −0.0024a (0.0013) −0.0034b (0.0017) −0.0054b (0.0021) −0.0120c (0.0031) −0.0124c (0.0037)
Alcohol and tobacco −0.0081c (0.0029) −0.0086c (0.0031) −0.0106c (0.0039) −0.0136c (0.0052) −0.0165b (0.0077) −0.0248c (0.0095) −0.0141c (0.0041) −0.0137c (0.0049) −0.0133b (0.0064) −0.0191b (0.0082) −0.0198a (0.0108) −0.0184 (0.0127)
Physical activity 0.0041c (0.0015) 0.0058c (0.0016) 0.0070c (0.0020) 0.0096c (0.0027) 0.0136c (0.0040) 0.0137c (0.0049) 0.0005 (0.0025) −0.0005 (0.0030) −0.0039 (0.0053) 0.0006 (0.0050) 0.0072 (0.0066) 0.0128 (0.0078)
F-test for panels 27.16 (p < 0.001) 33.27 (p < 0.001) 32.57 (p < 0.001) 26.83 (p < 0.001) 18.25 (p < 0.001) 14.56 (p < 0.001) 69.11 (p < 0.001) 76.25 (p < 0.001) 68.45 (p < 0.001) 54.81 (p < 0.001) 33.59 (p < 0.001) 27.10 (p < 0.001)
Breusch-Pagan test 243.62 (p < 0.001) 259.10 (p < 0.001) 246.38 (p < 0.001) 204.23 (p < 0.001) 169.40 (p < 0.001) 154.54 (p < 0.001) 684.17 (p < 0.001) 698.70 (p < 0.001) 674.56(p < 0.001) 595.05 (p < 0.001) 370.52 (p < 0.001) 288.81 (p < 0.001)
Hausman test 9.95 (p = 0.269) 10.29 (p = 0.245) 10.45 (p = 0.235) 10.47 (p = 0.233) 9.89 (p = 0.273) 9.71 (p = 0.286) 2.83 (p = 0.945) 2.99 (p = 0.935) 2.90 (p = 0.940) 3.81 (p = 0.874) 10.56 (p = 0.228) 11.20 (p = 0.191)
  1. Source: own calculations based on [21]. Notes: Each model built with 192 observations. All the variables are expressed in natural logarithms. The values in parenthesis for variables estimates are standard errors. Models are estimated using random-effects method and Nerlove's technique is used in the generalized least squares procedure. All the covariates except "Housing conditions" are lagged for three years. The variables for education, employment in services and physical activity are sex-specific. a, b, c - coefficients significant at the 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 levels, respectively