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Table 5 Characteristics of study participants classified as severely/extremely disabled by the WHODAS-36, living at home, and grouped by service-user status, i.e., users of at least one social service and social service non-users

From: Disability, support and long-term social care of an elderly Spanish population, 2008-2009: an epidemiologic analysis

Personal, socio-demographic, clinical and residential features Used at least one service: home help, day care, professional carer or had an individual support service plan (ISSP) implemented Social service benefit non-users P-values for differences of proportions or means
Number of individuals (n = 74) 31 (100) 43 (100)  
Social and demographic features
 Gender % (female) 22 (70.97) 34 (79.07) 0.423
Age in years. Mean (SD), 82.6 (9.02) 79.34 (10.80) 0.035
Academic qualification. None, incomplete primary, % 12 (38.71) 22 (51.16) 0.289
Can hardly make ends meeta 7 (23.33) 13 (30.90)  
Living aloneb 2 (6.67) 4 (9.30) 0.657
Average number of household members. Mean (SD), 2.9 (1.32) 2.7 (1.04) 0.291
Available non-professional carer 24 (77.42) 26 (60.47) 0.121
Available professional carer 15 (48.39) 0 (0) <0.001
Contact with social services unit (denoted as Centro Base) 7 (22.58) 4 (9.30) 0.1132
Diagnoses registered in primary care medical recordsb
 History of depression 9 (29.03) 10 (23.26) 0.575
 Dementia 14 (45.16) 7 (16.28) 0.108
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4 (12.9) 4 (9.30) 0.623
 Urinary incontinence 6 (19.35) 3 (6.98) 0.108
 Stroke 18 (58.06) 5 (11.63) <0.001
 Neurodegenerative disease 3 (9.68) 1 (2.33) 0.168
 Average number of chronic conditions. Mean (SD) 3.45 (1.41) 2.90 (1.53) 0.140
Mini-Mental Status Examination score <24 at survey datec 11 (57.81) 24 (60.00) 0.084
Prevalence of depressive symptoms EURO-D score ≥4d 16 (47.1) 16 (51.6) 0.714
WHODAS-36 score    
 Mean (SD) 70.25 (15.58) 61.54 (10.33) 0.005
 Severe/extreme difficulties in “Getting out of homee 27 (87.10) 35 (81.40) 0.512
Municipality size    
 <500 inhabitants 13 (41.91) 16 (37.21) 0.681
 500-14000 inhabitants 12 (38.70) 24 (55.81) 0.146
 >14000 inhabitants 6 (19.35) 13 (6.98) 0.108
Individual support service plan implemented 17 (54.83) 0 (0) <0.001
Individual support service plan not implemented. 4 (12.90) 10 (23.26) 0.262
  1. Percentages within each group in brackets
  2. aCalculated with 30 and 42 persons for each group; bCalculated with 30 and 43 persons for each group. cCalculated with 19 and 40 persons for each group
  3. dCalculated with 15 and 37 persons for each group. e Item D2.4: In the last 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in “Getting out of your home”?